Sunday, March 15, 2020
Desert Solitaire essays A reluctant nature writer, Edward Abbey writes of his experiences of, and personal philosophical developments during, his time in southeastern Utahs canyonlands. Abbey doesnt like to consider himself a nature writer, yet he clearly exhibits great strengths as a preserver of nature through his writings. I have currently read the introductory material and first six chapters of his book Desert Solitaire. I was immediately drawn to his descriptions of the desert because of my own love for the outdoors, particularly the arid landscape and natural beauty of the desert. In the first six chapters he introduces the reader to his new home, a metal trailer residing miles away from any other people and anything civilized. His only companions, the rocks, plants, a few ravens, some resident mice, a snake (and its friend) that he befriended, and a few other more-or-less elusive animals. Abbey is clearly an educated outdoorsman, reciting the names of dozens of plants that comprise the fauna around his new home as well as the plants of other regions. He also lists off the names and classification of many of the geological resources of the area; he names rocks and minerals that the average, even fairly educated, person would not recognize. These rock and mineral descriptions drew me even deeper into his book due to my own interest in geology (although there were names that even I didnt recognize). There have been different aspects of Abbeys book that I have enjoyed for different reasons, and some that have detracted enjoyment. I feel his visual descriptions of the plants, animals and rock formations are incredible, while his sometimes drawn out tangents are sometimes distracting. I particularly enjoy his brief interactions with the wildlife. When he asks the dear to join him, or queries the snakes about their behavior, the animals only response is to walk, slither, or run the other dir...
Friday, February 28, 2020
Interpretation of Martin Luther King's Letter from Jail - Essay Example The central ideas of the letter: love and justice, can be seen from the first lines of Martin Luther KingÃ¢â¬â¢s letter. He tries to disapprove accusation of not being a Birmingham insider. Martin Luther King claims that he had an invitation to Birmingham and had managerial ties as the Southern Christian Leadership ConferenceÃ¢â¬â¢s president. In addition, he did not consider himself as Birmingham outsider because of the fact that everyone who live within the territorial boundaries of the United States of America could not be referred to as outsiders. This justifies the justice and love idea of Martin Luther KingÃ¢â¬â¢s letter. Martin Luther KingÃ¢â¬â¢s letter focuses on nonviolent resistant defense to racism; Martin Luther King argues in the letter that people have a moral responsibility to resist unjust laws. This shows the commitment of Martin Luther King to advocate love and justice to the people of America. The letter though experienced an early setback; it enjoyed a bro ad publication and was considered the major text for the civil rights movement in the United States in the early 1960s. Martin Luther King responded through his letter to the call for unity and acted as a declaration to fight racial inequality. This again supports the thesis of this paper: the significance of love and justice in using appeals to logic, emotion and ethics. The "Letter from Birmingham Jail" by Martin Luther King literary puts into terms his life thesis statement. Martin Luther King illustrated meticulously his reasoning through the use of appeals to emotion, logic, and ethics. A logical appeal is that which utilizes facts, reason and documented evidence to drive a point. Martin Luther King makes in his letter a logical appeal where he responds to being referred to as an extremist. King does this by asserting that majority of historical figures that are today considered heroes were perceived as extremist in their time. Martin Luther King mentions people like Thomas Jef ferson, Apostle Paul, Jesus Christ and Abraham Lincoln (549). In this particular aspect, King uses facts and reason to put across a logical appeal to the reader: if he is considered an extremist because of campaigning for freedom, then all the other people are extremists as well. Martin Luther King cites an illustration of this by pointing out the manner in which the police at Birmingham mistreated the protesters (522). Although he does not in particular cite a source, the event was publicized widely. Martin Luther King uses evidence to invalidate the accusations by the clergymen. He also uses firsthand accounts in illustrating his points. King talks about the way he expected the white religious leaders to provide aid, but found opposition and reluctance instead (550). Martin Luther King states his arguments through providing firsthand account of his real experience. This however relies on the perception of the writer in order to be useful. Credibility is needed for this reason. In order to obtain credibility, explanations as to why things are done in a particular way must be given. Martin Luther King begins his letter by informing readers that he is writing the letter (540-541). Informing readers the reason for particular writings gives the readers insight to the real meaning of
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Adam Smith's Theory - Research Paper Example Born in 1723 and died in 1790, Smith left a legacy in his model Wealth of Nations that has been an influential contribution in economics. In brief, the theory identifies the basic principles that nation acquire wealth and function effectively when individuals use capital and proficiency at their own diplomacy. His model revealed the nature of countryÃ¢â¬â¢s prosperity as many learn the principles of economics. Up-to-date, his arguments are used and cited in debates as many learn from his great insights. Nevertheless, some people disagree with his assumption as many view him as an activist of callous individualism. Regardless of the way he is viewed, his theory is paramount in the economics field. How the economy does stem from his theory and importantly economists assume that the theory is accurate in how the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s economy operates. At this point, this paper seeks to analyze the theory and lay a discussion of its pros and cons. Wealth of Nations In his theory wealth of nat ion, Smith noted that wages and prices might reach optimal level when freedom of using capital and skills as per wish is imposed (Smith, In Cannan & Lerner, 1937). He taught by examples of new products, which he argued that, when invented prices are usually high until when others discover the profit potential, and join the field then prices go down. Indeed this can be outlined in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s electronics where such scenarios take place. ... According to O'Rourke and Smith (2007), the theory explored that there cannot be consumption if there is no production. To explain further, SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s theory affirmed cars do not just exist there is a process through which they are put together in production to manufacture cars. Similarly, capitalism works in this way in the sense that when a car is manufactured, those in need of a car search for it in the car factory and purchase as per their choice of the car. In the 21st Century, people do not just walk in the car factory and request to purchase the car but they are purchased by a dealership and later sold to clients. The main point that Smith wanted to highlight is that, one can break capitalism in two parts consumption and production. In this case, there cannot be consumption without production and vice versa. Applicability This law is applicable in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society in that one cannot purchase products at the market without being manufactured and supplied by a differen t party. Still, one cannot eat without preparing or acquiring food and cannot be in a house that has not been constructed. From his theory, Smith assumed that the market force ensured there is right invention of goods and services. The theorist based his idea on the aspect of free market economy whereby consumers have the free will to choose what they need. Smith perceived capitalism as the main aspect, which drives, and motivate the economy. He believed that it motivates companies and individuals to gain and accumulate profits. To support his argument, Smith developed two theories through a research on production in Europe during industrial revolution. The two theories are moral sentiments and wealth of nations, which
Friday, January 31, 2020
PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s 5 Forces Essay The fast food industry is one which affects many lives in Canada. The following is a PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s 5 ForceÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis that will determine how attractive this industry is as a whole. To determine the threat of new entrants, one must first consider the barriers to entry. Firstly, the start-up costs associated with the fast food industry are relatively minute. This acts as a low barrier to entry. In this industry, the top four companies account for 37.4% of the total revenue. Although that is not a percentage of mind-changing significance, a business entering this industry must be able to uniquely establish itself with product differentiation. That being said, it is believed that the industry concentration is relatively low. Accordingly, high barriers to entry arise from government regulations, specifically including health and food service as well as occupational health and safety issues, along with a high amounts of competition within the fast food industry. Overall, the barriers to entry can be determined as low resulting in a high threat of new entrants. Next is establishing the power of the buyer. The fast food industry has been impacted by the decreasing demand for fried food and subsequently the increase for healthy options. This change in consumer trends along with a high variety of fast food places to choose from assume high power of the buyer. Secondly, it has been determined that the products sold in the fast food industry are luxury goods goods that are purchased more-so whenÃ economic times are Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ . In turn, when economic times are Ã¢â¬Å"rough,Ã¢â¬ consumers will choose to eat less fast food and more home cooking. Overall, the power of the buyer within the fast food industry is high. Thirdly, the threat of substitutes must be determined. Substitutes for the fast food industry include grocery stores (i.e., eating home cooked meals), full-service restaurants (both single and multiple location based businesses), catering companies, food trucks, bars and night clubs. Due to the fact that the fast food indus try consumes a large portion of the food market, it can be concluded that there is a medium threat of substitutes. Examining the bargaining power of suppliers, one can look at two different groups, (1) large companies and (2) small companies. Large companies within the fast food industry include dominant players such as McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, Subway and Yum! Brands. Due to the large size and demand of these companies, they are relatively dependent on those suppliers who can meet their needs. For these companies, the bargaining power of suppliers is high. However, all other smaller companies are faced with many different suppliers that can meet their demand needs. The smaller companies are faced with low bargaining power of suppliers. All in all, one finds the total bargaining power of suppliers to be at a medium level. Lastly comes the examination of industry rivalry. The three leading companies that take up 33.1% of the market share include McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s, Subway and Yum! Brands. Furthermore, within the market, the total number of companies is forecast to increase on average 1.5% per year to 17,039 in 2019. Overall, the dominant players along with the size of the industry lead to high industry rivalry. Based on the previous analysis and using a scale of 0-10 (0 being very unattractive and 10 being very attractive), the following scores can be determined: Threat of New Entrants = 3, Power of the Buyer = 4, Threat of Substitutes = 6, Bargaining Power of Suppliers = 5 and Industry Rivalry = 3. With an average score of 4.2, it is determined that the fast food industry is of medium attractiveness.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Lawrence Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg laid the groundwork for the current debate within psychology on moral development. He proposed that children form ways of thinking through their experiences which include understandings of moral concepts such as justice, rights, equality and human welfare. Kohlberg followed the development of moral judgment beyond the ages. He determined that the process of attaining moral maturity took longer and was more gradual than other studies have shown. Kohlberg identified six stages of moral grouped into three major levels. Each level represented a fundamental shift in the social-moral perspective of the individual. At the first level, the preconventional level, a person's moral judgments are characterized by a individual perspective. Within this level, a Stage 1 they focused on avoiding breaking rules that are backed by punishment, obedience for its own sake and avoiding the physical consequences of an action to persons and property. At Stage 2 there is the early emergence of moral reciprocity. The Stage 2 focused on the value of an action. Reciprocity is of the form, "you scratch my back and I'll scratch yours." The Golden Rule becomes, "If someone hits you, you hit them back." At Stage 2 one follows the rules only when it is to someone's immediate interests. What is right is what's fair in the sense of an equal exchange, a deal, an agreement. At Stage 2 there is an understanding that everybody has his own ...
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Written Assignment 1: Language related tasks Submit : __/__/_____ Length: Between 800 and 1000 words Aim: To develop your ability to look at language (structure, functional language and vocabulary) from the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ point of view to enable you to prepare thoroughly for language lessons. You should make use of grammar reference books or course books and a monolingual dictionary. Bullet points may be used in this assignment. TASK: From the box below, select one item from each pair to analyse, and: a) Analyse meaning: Give a clear definition (appropriate for level) of what the item means; focus only on the meaning used in the statement. ) Analyse form and label the parts (using terminology): * Structure Ã¢â¬â statement/negative/question forms (if applicable); make sure itÃ¢â¬â¢s clear which words can be substituted and which are Ã¢â¬Å"set in stoneÃ¢â¬ . * Vocabulary Ã¢â¬â label the item e. g. adjective, phrasal verb etc; irregular past forms, common collocations, etc. * Functional Language Ã¢â¬â show which parts are Ã¢â¬Å"set in stoneÃ¢â¬ and which parts can be changed e. g.? Would you mind + verb+ing (present participle) + object? c) Highlight key pronunciation features. Use phonemic script where useful. * word or sentence stress, * weak forms, intonation, * links between sounds, contractions, lost sounds, etc. d) Anticipate problems Ã¢â¬â think about what problems students might have with the features you listed above. a) What aspects of the meaning might be difficult for students to grasp? Are there other words/structure that express something similar? Does the structure exist in students L1? b) What form-related mistakes might students make when trying to use the item? c) What problems might sts have with particular sounds, word stress or other pronunciation issues? Use your common sense as well as reference sources. ) Imagine your students are not familiar with each language item. Describe a context that would help convey its mean ing so that you could elicit the target statement. f) State how you would check studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ understanding of the language item. Write the concept questions you would ask and provide the answers. If a timeline is appropriate, you should also include this. You can include other ways of checking too, if you wish. g) State which reference book(s) or other source(s) you used to obtain the above information. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Choose ONE example from each pair.The target language has been underlined. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- 1. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- IÃ¢â¬â¢m meeting Dave for lunch on Sunday. (elementary) 2. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- If I get the job, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll need a new car. (elementary) Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â 3. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- He shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have insulted the policeman (upper-intermediate) 4. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-She might have left already. (upper-intermediate) Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â 5. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- He takes after his mother. (pre-intermediate) 6. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- She is very sensitive to criticism. (pre-intermediate) Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â 7. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-How about watching a movie on Friday? (elementary) 8. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Do you mind if I open the window? (elementary) Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â 9. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢ â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- I would like to try the tropical fruit/fruits on the island. 10. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- You want teens to have committed academic lives? Get real! WORKED EXAMPLE: VOCABULARY Target statement: JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s borrowed $200 from Holly. Intermediate) Analysis| d) Anticipated Problems| a) Meaningto receive and use something that belongs to someone else, and promise to give it back to them later| * Sts use lend instead of borrow| b) Form * to borrow (transitive verb Ã¢â¬â regular) * borrowed Ã¢â¬â past simple/past participle * To borrow + something (object) + from (preposition) + somebody/something| * Sts use incorrect preposition i. e. to borrow sthg to so. | c) Pronunciation * stress on 1st syllable borrow /Ã¢â¬â¢b? r / * silent Ã¢â¬Å"wÃ¢â¬ at end * past simple & particle Ã¢â¬Å"edÃ¢â¬ is pronounced /d/ * preposition Ã¢â¬Å"fromÃ¢â¬ is weak e. g. /fr? /| * sts pronounce silent w at end * incorrect pron of ed /id/ * sts stress 2nd syllable | e) Providing a context/conveying meaning Tell story about my friend John who is always short of money but who always wants the latest technical objects e. g. mobile, computer, etc. John saw this new DVD recordable player but didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the money so he asked if Holly, his girlfriend, would give him $200. He promised to pay Holly back at the end of the month when he got paid. She said OK so .. (write on whiteboard) John Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. $200 Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. Holly. f) Checking understanding Did Holly give John $200? Yes What for? To buy a new DVD recorder.Is the money a present from Holly? No Will she get her money back? Yes, hopefully g) References Ã¢â¬Å"Macmillan English DictionaryÃ¢â¬ , Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2003 Ã¢â¬Å"Practical English UsageÃ¢â¬ , Michael Swan (OUP, 1980) WORKED EXAMPLE: STRUCTURE Target statement: I used to do exercise regularly. ( intermediate) Analysis| d) Anticpated problems| a) MeaningTo say what was true or what happened regularly in the past, especially when you want to emphasize that this is not true or does not happen now. | * Sts might think it refers to present habits, perhaps due to confusion with Ã¢â¬Ëbe + used to + verb+ingÃ¢â¬â¢. * Sts may use it for single past events e. . I used to go to the cinema yesterday. * Possible confusion with the lexical verb Ã¢â¬ËuseÃ¢â¬â¢. | b) Form * statement: subj. + used to + verb (bare infinitive)+Ã¢â¬ ¦ * negative: subj. + didnÃ¢â¬â¢t use to + verb (bare infinitive)+Ã¢â¬ ¦ * question: Did (auxiliary verb) + subj. + use to + verb (bare infinitive) +Ã¢â¬ ¦| * Sts may use past form of second verb, (I used to did exercise Ã¢â¬ ¦) * Sts may forget Ã¢â¬Å"toÃ¢â¬ (I used do Ã¢â¬ ¦) * Ss may use Ã¢â¬Å"usedÃ¢â¬ instead of Ã¢â¬Å"useÃ¢â¬ in negative and question forms. (I did/didnÃ¢â¬â¢t used to .. )| c) Pronunciation * stress would normally fa ll on used and 2nd verb i. e. I used to do exercise regularly * weak form of Ã¢â¬ËtoÃ¢â¬ sed: /t? / * connected speech: used to /Ã¢â¬â¢just? /| * Ss might say /ju:zd tu:/ i. e. stress /d/ in Ã¢â¬Å"usedÃ¢â¬ Ss might not use weak form of Ã¢â¬Å"toÃ¢â¬ /tu:/ instead of /t? /| e) Providing a context/conveying meaning Tell an anecdote about myself as a 16 year-old. I went running every morning and often went to the gym in the evening (use pictures/mime, if necessary). Then I stopped running and stopped going to the gym when I was about 25. IÃ¢â¬â¢m now 30 and I donÃ¢â¬â¢t do much exercise at all. So, Ã¢â¬Å"I Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ (try to elicit the target phrase) Ã¢â¬ ¦ used to do exercise regularly. Ã¢â¬ f) Checking Understanding: Did I exercise in the past?Yes Did I do it once, or often? Often Do I exercise now? No Can you think of something you used to do but donÃ¢â¬â¢t do now? g) Reference: Ã¢â¬Å"Practical English UsageÃ¢â¬ , Michael Swan (OUP, 1980) Ã¢â¬Å"Macmi llan English DictionaryÃ¢â¬ , Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2003 WORKED EXAMPLE: FUNCTIONAL LANGUAGE Target statement: Would you mind getting me a cheese sandwich? (intermediate) Analysis| d) Anticipated Problems| a) Meaning * to request politely that someone do something for you. * Often used with slightly bigger requests or more distance in relationship between the speakers. * Answer: Yes = no and no = yes. * Sts might not realise there are other less complex ways to ask for things politely * Sts get the answer yes/no wrong * This structure suggests a bigger request or a less personal relationship between speakers. | b) Form * Would you mind + verb+ing (present participle) + object? * Short answer: Yes/No, subj. + would/wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t| * Sts use infinitive instead of present participle e. g. Would you mind to get me Ã¢â¬ ¦? * Sts use Ã¢â¬Å"DoÃ¢â¬ instead of Ã¢â¬Å"wouldÃ¢â¬ * Use Yes/No, I mind/donÃ¢â¬â¢t mind as the short answer| c) Pronunciation * Rising intonation * St ress on Ã¢â¬Å"mindÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"gettingÃ¢â¬ * Weak form of would and you / w? / /j? / * Linking of would + you + mind /w? dj? Ã¢â¬â¢ma? n/| * Sts say it forcefully or with flat intonation and it could sound impolite * Sts give equal stress to would+you+mind and donÃ¢â¬â¢t link| e) Providing a context/conveying meaning Jane has just started working for a new company. One of her new colleagues is going out to the local supermarket and asks her if she wants her to get her something for lunch. Jane is really hungry and ask her to get her a sandwich. What does she say? (Try to elicit Ã¢â¬Å"Would you mind getting me a cheese sandwich? Ã¢â¬ ) f) Checking Understanding: Does Jane want a cheese sandwich?Yes Is she asking or demanding her colleague to get her a sandwich? Asking Is she polite? Yes Do you know another way to ask her to get a sandwich? Can/Could/Would you get me a Ã¢â¬ ¦.? g) Reference: Ã¢â¬Å"Practical English UsageÃ¢â¬ , Michael Swan (OUP, 1980) Ã¢â¬Å"Macmi llan English DictionaryÃ¢â¬ , Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2003 Written Assignment 1: Language related tasks Length: Between 800 and 1000 words Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Name:Date: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Please submit this cover sheet with your assignment | Pass(first draft)| Pass(second draft)| Fail|Assignment 1: Language related tasks| | | | If necessary, please resubmit by:See reverse side for resubmission details. | Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Assignment criteria Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- For this assignment, candidates can demonstrate their learning by: a. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬ âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Analysing language correctly for teaching purposes. b. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Correctly using terminology relating to form, meaning and phonology when analysing language. c. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-Accessing reference materials and referencing information they have learned about language to an appropriate source. d. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Using written language that is clear, accurate and appropriate to the task. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Reference: CEL TA Syllabus and Assessment Guidelines What are we looking for? An assignment that shows an ability to:| You| Overall| a. Clarify the meaning of language appropriate for level. | | | b. Clarify the form of language, using appropriate terminology. | | | c. Clarify key pronunciation features of language. | | d. Identify potential problems with meaning, form and pronunciation. | | | e. Provide a clear and appropriate context to help convey the meaning. | | | f. Check the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ understanding of the target language appropriately. | | | g. Use reference books to analyse language and acknowledge these sources. | | | Also the assignment Ã¢â¬ ¦| | Is complete, i. e. answers all sections, and adheres to the word limit. | | Uses language which is clear and coherent, and essentially free of mistakes in spelling, punctuation and grammar. | | Is presented clearly. | | Overall Comments:| Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â ¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â 1st TutorÃ¢â¬â¢s signature:Date: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- 2nd TutorÃ¢â¬â¢s signature:Date: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Circle: This is my 1st submission. This is my 2nd submission. Written Assignment 2: Focus on the learner Submit: __/__/____ Length: Between 800 and 1000 words Aim: To develop your ability to assess the needs of a group of learners, and to act on this information by finding appropriate material for language support. Task: Prepare a case study of your TP group. Your report should include (250-300 words): . Information about the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ backgrounds (approximate ages, nationalities, reasons for learning English, previous English learning experience) b. The studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning styles (what they like/dislike in lessons, t he things they find easy/difficult, how they like to learn) c. What YOU have noticed in their classroom behaviour (degree of participation, quantity or output in different stages of the lesson, fluency/accuracy of output, similarity of level amongst the group) Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Points a, b and c of the assignment should take the form of a REPORT.You should use a formal style of language. Make use of headings and sub-headings, paragraphs, linking words, etc to organise your work. d. A paragraph (150-200) words summarising your TP studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ main strengths in grammatical and phonological areas as well as in receptive skills. e. Identify 2 areas of weakness in your studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ grammar, 1 in pronunciation and 1 in vocabulary, providing at least one example to support your observation. State why you think the students made this error and what the correct form should be. (250Ã¢â¬â300 words) Point e can be put into boxes and bullet points can be used.Remember to include specific examples. Grammatical Weaknesses| Incorrect word order * I work also on Saturdays (I also work) * I went often home (home by bus)Reason: In German, the verb is usually the second idea in the sentence and students have transferred this rule to English. | f. Select 2 specific language focused activities (100-200 words) from published materials (not your course book) to focus on areas of weakness you identified: * 1 exercise/task focusing on grammatical areas of weakness AND * 1 exercise/task on phonological areas of weakness OR 1 exercise/task on the lexical weakness. For EACH activity: ) state the aim of the activity (i. e. by the end of this task, students should be better able to accurately use/discriminate between Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ ) 2) state briefly why you think the activity would be suitable for your students. (Remember to link this to your weaknesses and your profil e of the students. ) 3) State where it comes from (Book, Author, Pg no. , Exercise no. ) and attach a referenced a copy of the activity Collecting your data: You will want to interview them so that you can note any good or weaker examples of language used. You might want to tape the interview so that you can identify language later.You could also get students to write something for you spontaneously e. g. a letter to a friend inviting them to spend the summer with them. You could also give them a reading and listening to do. You can further make use of the time before lessons start or during the breaks to chat to your students and find out the information you need. You should continue to make notes during TP classes. It is not necessary for you to personally interview all members of the class; you can interview 2 or 3 students and then share your findings with the other teachers in your TP group.You can also make generalisations on the basis of 2 or 3 students. Suggesting specific l anguage focused activities: There are an abundance of activities in different books and on the publisherÃ¢â¬â¢s websites too. Attach photocopies of the relevant exercises that you would recommend. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t forget to reference your material, i. e. book name, level (if applicable), author, publisher, and page number, or website name and date accessed on. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- The students as people and as language learners. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-These questions could be asked in an interview or informal chat 1. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- How long has s/he been learning English? 2. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Does s/he like learning English? 3. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- What is her/his mother tongue? Is English second/third language? 4. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Does s/he have any experience of learning another language? 5. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Does s/he have any specific aims in learning English? (e. g. isit to UK/need it for work) 6. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- What does the learner do for a living? 7. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Is this their first English learning experience? Have they learnt English before? Where? How long? 8. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- In their previous learning experience, what kinds of methods were used? 9. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- What did they enjoy/not like about their previous learning? 10. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- What do they like doing in class? 11. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Which areas of their English do they feel they need work on? 12. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- What d o they find easy/difficult to do in class? Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- These questions can be focussed on during TP 1. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- What kinds of activities do they seem to prefer? 2. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Are there any activities they seem to dislike? 3. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-How do they react to working with others in class? 4. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬ âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Do they contribute to pair/group work? 5. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Who are the stronger/weaker members of the group? 6. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Note down examples of good language used. 7. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Which topics do they seem to enjoy/not like talking about? 8. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Note down any pronunciation/grammatical/lexical errors the students make? e. g. sounds, stress, intonation, verb tenses, articles, word order, etc) so that you can give examples. 9. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Observe the students listening and reading abilities. Are they better at gist or specific reading/listening? Is it necessary to pre-teach vocabulary? Do they worry about words they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know? Do you have to grade your language when you talk to them? Do you have to paraphrase if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand? * In the assignment, donÃ¢â¬â¢t mention stsÃ¢â¬â¢ names. Say e. g. Some are interested inÃ¢â¬ ¦ Three students want to learn EnglishÃ¢â¬ ¦The main reason for learning English isÃ¢â¬ ¦ Written Assignment 2: Focus on the learner Submit: __/__/____ Length: Between 800 and 1000 words Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Name:Date: Please submit this cover sheet with your assignment | Pass(first draft)| Pass(second draft)| Fail| Assignment 2Focus on the learner| | | | If necessary, please resubmit by:| Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â ¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Assignment Criteria Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- For this assignment, candidates can demonstrate their learning by: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- ) Showing awareness of how learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ backgrounds, previous learning experience and learning styles affect learning. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- b) Identifying the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ language/skills needs. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- c) Correctly using terminology relating to the description of language systems and langua ge skills Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- d) Selecting appropriate material and/or resources to aid the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ language development. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- e) Providing a rationale for using specific activities with learners. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â f) Finding, selecting and referencing information from one or more sources Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- g) Using written language that is clear, accurate and appropriate to task. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Reference: CELTA Syllabus and Assessment Guidelines What are we looking for? An assignment thatÃ¢â¬ ¦| You| TutorÃ¢â¬â¢s Comments| Provides information on the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ ages, nationalities and reasons for learning English. | | | Provides information on studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning styles and preferences. | | Provides information on learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ classroom behaviour. | | | Summarises studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ strengths | | | Identifies and gives specific examples of weaknesses in learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ grammatical abilities. Plus error rationale. | | | Identifies and gives specific examples of weaknesses in learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ phonological abilities. Plus error rationale. | | | Identifies and gives specific examples of weaknesses in the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ lexical use. Plus error rationale. | | | Selects an appropriate activity to develop learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ grammatical weakness. | | | Selects an appropriate activity to develop learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ phonological OR lexical weakness. | | States aim of each activity and provides rationale for choice based on learner profile. | | | Also the assignment Ã¢â¬ ¦| | | Is complete, i. e. answers all sections and adheres to word limit and is written as outlined| | | Provides a referenced copy of the activities| | | Uses clear and coherent language and is essentially free of mistakes in spelling, punctuation and grammar. | | | Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Overall Comment:Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â | Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- 1st TutorÃ¢â¬â¢s signature:Date: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- 2nd TutorÃ¢â¬â¢s signature:Date: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Circle: This is my 1st submission. This is my 2nd submission. ASSIGNMENT 3: Skills Related Task Submit: __/__/____ Length: Between 800 and 1000 words (not including the authentic material for classroom use and activities) Aim: To develop your ability to look at authentic materials from a teaching perspective to enable you to prepare these thoroughly for language lessons.TASK: Choose an authentic text of between 200 and 700 words AND a) Give an opinion on text and discuss suitability for lower/higher level students. b) Identifiy barriers to reading OR listening in general and link to own students c) Provide suggestion for interest raising task d) Select appropriate vocabulary to pre-teach and suggest a pre-teach task e) Describe what each sub-skill means (from background reading) f) Design a skim task g) Design a scan task h) Design a follow-up task that includes SPEAKING or WRITING. i) Devise a freer productive (speaking or writing) activity as a follow-up for the reading or listening.ALSOÃ¢â¬ ¦ Clarify the reasons for using the material and each of the activities. Tasks (and their respective keys) must be included as appendixes to the assignment Remember, the assignment is NOT a Lesson Plan, but rather an informed description (What will be done, How and Why) of your choices in terms of text, tasks and their sequences. It can be used as a basis for a full lesson plan, but this NEED not be included in the assignment ASSIGNMENT 3: Skills Related Task Submit: __/__/____ Length: Between 800 and 1000 words Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Name:Date: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Please submit this cover sheet with your assignment | Pass(first draft)| Pass(second draft)| Fail| Assignment 3Skills assignment| | | | If necessary, please resubmit by:See reverse for resubmission details. | Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Assignment Criteria Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- For this assignment, candidates can demonstrate their learning by: a. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Correctly using te rminology that relates to language skills and sub-skills. b. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-Relating task design to language skills practice. c. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Finding, selecting and referencing information from one or more sources d. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Using written language that is clear, accurate and appropriate to task. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Reference: CELTA Syllabus and Assessment Guidelines What are we looking for? | You| TutorÃ¢â¬â¢s Comments| Gives an opinion on text and discusses suitability for lower/higher level students| | | Provides suggestion for interest raising task| | |Selects appropriate vocabulary to pre-teach and suggests a pre-teach task| | | Describes what each sub-skill means (from background reading)| | | Designs a skim task| | | Designs a scan task| | | Identifies barriers to reading OR listening in general and links to own students| | | States overall aim of speaking OR writing task clearly. | | | Also the assignment Ã¢â¬ ¦| | | Is complete, i. e. answers all sections, & adheres to the word limit. | | | Provides a referenced copy of practice tasks if not designed independently. | | | Uses clear and coherent language, which is essentially free of mistakes in spelling, punctuation and grammar. | | Is written in continuous prose (where appropriate)| | | Includes references to background reading. | | | Overall Comments:| Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- 1st TutorÃ¢â¬â¢s signature:Date: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬ âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- 2nd TutorÃ¢â¬â¢s signature:Date: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Circle: This is my 1st submission. This is my 2nd submission. Written Assignment 4: Lessons from the Classroom Submit: __/__/____ Length: 800 words AIM This assignment assesses your ability to identify strengths & weaknesses in your own teaching and your development needs.It is meant to help you reflect on your own teaching and on what you have learnt from the observation of others. TASK Write a report using the following headings. Section 1 What strengths and weaknesses (name two of each) do you identify in your own teaching? For this section reflect on the feedback you have received from learners, your peers and tutors and give concrete examples from your own teaching. Section 2 Discuss what you have gained from observi ng experienced teachers (including video observations) and your peers and how this has influenced your own teaching. Section 3Identify three ELT areas of knowledge and skills which you need further development in and give reasons for your choice. Describe specifically how you could develop in these areas after the course. Written Assignment 4: Lessons from the Classroom Submit: __/__/____ Length: 800 words Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Name:Date: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Please submit this cover sheet with your assignment | Pass(first draft)| Pass(second draft)| Fail| Assignment 4Lessons from the classroom| | | | If necessary, please resubmit by:See reverse side for resubmission details. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Assignment Criteria Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- For this assignment, candidates can demonstrate their learning by: a. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Noting their own teaching strengths and weaknesses in different situation in light of feedback from learners, teachers and teacher educators. b. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Identifying which ELT areas of knowledge and skills they need further development in. c. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â-Describing in a specific way how they might develop their ELT knowledge and skills beyond the course. d. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Using written language that is clear, accurate and appropriate to the task. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Reference: CELTA Syllabus and Assessment Guidelines What are we looking for? An assignment that:| TutorÃ¢â¬â¢s Comments| Identifies 2 strengths in your teaching. | | Provides concrete examples of strengths from your own teaching. | | Identifies 2 weaknesses in your teaching. | | Provides concrete examples of weaknesses from your own teaching. | Reflects on what you have learnt from observing peers and experienced teachers. | | Highlights 3 areas for further development. | | Provides reasons for areas chosen. | | Provides concrete ways to address these development needs after the course. | | Also the assignment Ã¢â¬ ¦| | Is complete, i. e. answers all sections. | | Keeps to the word limit. | | Uses language which is clear and coherent, and essentially free of mistakes in spelling, punctuation and grammar. | | Is presented clearly. Makes use of headings and sub-headings| | Overall Comments:|
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Organisational Behaviour and Motivation Term Paper Organisational behaviour is described as A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behaviour within organisations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organisations effectiveness. (Robbins and Millet and Cacioppe and Waters-Marsh, 1998, p.10). An important area within organisational behaviour is motivation. Herzberg describes the main problem in business practice is, How do I get an employee to do what I want him to do (1991, p.13) Motivation is a word that is used to describe how eager a person is to complete a task. Motivation is the set of processes that arouse, direct and maintain humanÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Inkson and Kolb discuss the issue of expectancy theory, which is how an employee values the outcome of putting in a lot of effort in order to achieve a goal. ?Motivation declines when there is uncertainty of the lineages between performance and effort? (Inkson and Kolb, 1999, p.327) Outcomes can include bonuses and or praise (extrinsic rewards) and feelings of accomplishment (intrinsic rewards). Herzberg doesn?t believe in the giving of bonuses in order to increase productivity. Herzberg states that ?Hunger, a basic biological drive makes it necessary to earn money, and then money becomes a specific drive? (Herzberg, 1991, p.16). This means that once employees start being rewarded with money they won?t be able to work without it. Another firm believer of this is Kohn who states, ?When reward systems fail don?t blame the program, look at the promise behind it.? (1993, p.54). Kohns article describes incentives, as only bringing temporary compliance and once the rewards run out people will revert back to their old behaviours. Serious issues with incentives also include employees telling their superiors that everything is under control when it isn?t, just to save their bonus. Kohn then states that ?There are very few things that threaten an organisation as much as a hoard of incentive driven individuals trying to curry favour with the incentive dispenser? (1993, p.56). As described by Robbins demotivation can alsoShow MoreRelatedMotivation Theory And Expectancy Theory Of Motivation1742 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesemployeeÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour and actions. As per this case study, The Sunday Times obtained questionaries for who had already departing from the Western Australian (WA) Police force. According to survey officers of WA force who left the force they had some issues like bullying, corruption, illegal activities, discrimination on racist grounds, and they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get proper training and development at a work place. This problem mainly occurs in organisation when there is lack of motivation, lack of organisational justiceRead MoreLeadership And Learning : Organizational Learning1401 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLearning Organisational learning in leadership Jewon Na 11401132 Ã¢â¬Æ' Executive summary This report is to provide the ways in leadership and learning through organisational learning theories and examples of organisational, social and personal areas. Reflection of organisational theories to the leadership and learning is the main issue of the report and it will help to understand how the organisational theories will work in real circumstances. This report seeks meaning of organisational learningRead Morebusiness Assignment1024 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Higher National Diploma in Business Management (Part-time) BEHAVIOUR AT WORK Unit 3: Organisations and Behaviour Outcome 1: Understand the relationship between organisational structure and culture Outcome 2: Understand different approaches to management and leadership Outcome 3: Understand ways of using motivational theories in organisations Outcome 4: Understand mechanisms for developing effective teamwork in organisations SCENARIO AccordingRead MoreOrganizational Behavior Essay1746 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOrganisational Behaviour (OB) is the study of human behaviour in an organisation. It is a multidisciplinary field devoted to the understanding individual and group behaviour, interpersonal processes and organisational dynamics. OB is important to all management functions, roles and skills. Since organisations are built up levels - individual, group and an organizational system as a whole, it is important for managers to understand human behaviour in order to meet the organizations overall goals.Read MoreDiscuss the Functions of the Formal and Informal Groups, How Can Each Type of Group Contribute to the Achievement of Organisational Goals. Provide Examples to Illustrate Your Answer.790 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDiscuss the functions of the formal and informal groups, how can each type of group contribute to the achievement of organisational goals. Provide examples to illustrate your answer. Ã¢â¬Å"Groups are formed as a consequence of the pattern of organisation structure and arrangements for the division of work.Ã¢â¬ Mullins, L. (2007). Management And Organisational Behaviour. Harlow; Prentice Hall. A group is seen as a number of people, who are socially and psychologically aware of each other. It isRead MoreOrganisational Culture and Motivation1496 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesReading INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE As Desson and Clouthier (2010) state, culture is an important factor in both attracting and retaining desirable employees. The extent to which an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and expectations are fulfilled will determine the motivation, job satisfaction and performance levels (Mullins, 2005, p. 499) which would be influenced by culture. XY Ltd (XY) established in 1944 has become the market leader in sea trade in Sri Lanka at present with the areas shipping, marine services andRead More Organisational Behaviour 1534 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand the behaviour of groups and individuals within themÃ¢â¬ Derek PughÃ¢â¬â¢s (1971) This influential definition of organisational behaviour was by Derek Pugh in 1971. Human behaviour is the way people act and react to situations and circumstances, each individual is different, therefore it is essential for an organisation to study human behaviour in order to understand the workforce. By observing and understanding each individual the organisation would improve performance; organisational behaviour can beRead MoreImpact Of Oc On Employee Performance1172 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesImpact of OC on employee/organisational performance There is a common consensus that employees behaviours are shaped by their culture (Denison, 1984, Furnham and Gunter, 1993). In an organisational context, management interest in a culture lies in what impact culture can have on the commercial or financial performance of a firm. Organisational performance (which is derived from employee performance) or success implies to the contributions or productivity of employees of an organisation. ResearchRead MoreMotivation : Extrinsic And Intrinsic Factors1476 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMotivation: An Evaluation of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Factors Motivation has been widely studied and particularly explored in organisational behaviour. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are two areas of current discourse that have been critically examined for motivating workforce. This paper aims to: define extrinsic and intrinsic motivations; outline the competing views regarding the relationship between the concepts; and, apply the research findings to a workplace observation within the RoyalRead MoreOrganisational Behaviour1292 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOrganisation Behaviour is a study of a people, individuals and a group of peoples thinking, feeling and behaviour in a organisation. That is, it interprets people-organisation relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organisation, and while social system Ã¯ ¼ËNwlink.com, 2008). Because most of us work in organisations, learning organisational behaviour is able to help us understand, predict and influence the behavious of others in organisational setting, and trends in org anisational