Thursday, September 3, 2020

Alphonse Capone Essays - Five Points Gang, The Untouchables

Alphonse Capone Essays - Five Points Gang, The Untouchables Alphonse Capone Alphonse Capone Brought into the world 1/17/1899, Brooklyn Kicked the bucket 1/25/1947, Florida Al Capone is one of the most perceived names in American history. Alphonse was destined to Neapolitan migrants Gabriel and Teresa. His last name, initially Caponi, had been Americanized to Capone. The Capone family included James, Ralph, Salvatore (Frank), Alphonse, John, Albert, Matthew, Rose and Mafalda. Capone was pleased to be an American I'm no Italian. I was conceived in Brooklyn, he frequently said. Al went to class with Salvatore Lucania, later known as Lucky Luciano. At about the age of ten he started to follow best in class hoodlum Johnny Torrio, additionally a Neapolitan. At fourteen he quit school after striking an educator. Capone and Fortunate Luciano joined a pack known as the Five Pointers, on Manhattan's Lower East Side. Capone worked for Frank Yale, leader of the Unione Siciliane, as a bouncer and barkeep. One night he said something about the sister of Frank Galluciano, and Galluciano cut Capone's face with a folding knife, leaving three huge scars on the left half of his face. For quite a bit of his criminal vocation, papers would call Capone by the despised name Scarface. Extraordinarily, Capone decide to excuse Galluciano and, years after the fact, employed him as a guardian. Johnny Torrio had moved to Chicago to work for his uncle, Big Jim Colosimo. Torrio sent for his trusted lieutenant, Capone. Associated with two killings, Capone was anxious to leave New York. Capone worked under Torrio as a bouncer and hooligan. On May 11, 1920, Big Jim Colosimo was killed in his own bistro by an obscure executioner. Johnny Torrio was presently the pioneer of the most remarkable posse in Chicago, and Capone his right-hand man. Torrio forced a harmony arrangement on different packs, which went on until the O'Banion-Genna war. Torrio was shot by O'Banion men in retaliation for O'Banion's killing. He endure, scarcely. Prior to resigning to Italy, Torrio surrendered authority of his posse to Capone. Jen3 The Di Vito landmark, a short separation east of the Religious administrators' catacomb, highlights busts of Mr. also, Mrs. Di Vito in shallow nooks. The Ionic segments on the side are somewhat secured with sticking vines. Jen4 Mount Carmel is perhaps the best burial ground. It is situated in west rural Hillside, over the road from Queen of Paradise. Mt Carmel is the most established Catholic burial ground in the western piece of the Archdiocese of Chicago. By far most of people covered here are Italian. Italian conventions incorporate sculpture, and photos on the landmark, and private sepulchers. There are more than 400 private family tombs in Mt. Carmel, more than some other graveyard in the region. Italian outsiders in Chicago protected their way of life, and Mount Carmel has a great Old-World feel. The most famous fascination is the Bishops' catacomb, which got more than 50,000 guests in the two months after the passing of Cardinal Bernardin in October 1996. In any case, to many, Mt. Carmel is similarly popular for the graves of Chicago's famous hoodlums of the 1920s - including Al Capone, most popular of all. Book index I truly cant say anything

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Question and Objective Historical Commentary free essay sample

One of the primary inquiries I missed was the absolute first inquiry which posed about what the section could best be depicted as. I initially thought it was to a greater extent an emotional monolog. When I checked my answers and assessed the section again I understood that it was a target chronicled critique. I likewise got question #40 off base since I neglected to consider those to be as doublespeaks. I thought they were epithets utilized by local people. The inquiries structure was somewhat difficult to follow, however it wasn’t as hard this time around. My involvement in this training different decision segment was a progressively charming one. In spite of the fact that I missed a couple of inquiries, I can see that it was my own absence of understanding that drove me to mistake. This section and set of inquiries was much simpler to me than a portion of different ones. I saw the vast majority of what was given. We will compose a custom article test on Question and Objective Historical Commentary or then again any comparable point explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page There were just a couple of angles that were hurled at me that were lost upon me. 1. What components of parody did you notice upon your first read of the article? A few components that I got are the extreme way the creator made jokes about extraordinary items that guarantee to mend you with the intensity of science. 2. What expository methodologies add to the parody? How are they viably utilized? One explanatory procedure utilized is promotion populum false notion. All the more explicitly the utilization of bandwagoning, ensuring that other notable individuals let you realize they like the item so as to pick up the intrigue or the average citizens. Another is the utilization of language. It utilizes numerous genuine and fanciful logical terms, for example, biomagnetic and vibrational biofeedback. 3. What are the key contrasts between understudy reaction 2A and understudy reaction 2B? How would you represent the three point distinction in scores? One of the key contrasts between the student’s reactions is that understudy 1A utilized increasingly exact subtleties and statements rather than understudy 1B who didn’t use as much subtleties and that’s what caused the distinction between their scored. 4. Clarify the score got by the essayist of 2C. Where do you figure this author may have botched a chance to create an a lot more grounded exposition? Where are the open doors for development? Understudy 2C got the score of 3 as a result of his total absence of detail. He concentrated an excessive amount of on the anecdotal realities rather than the component of parody introduced. While talking about the individual meetings the understudy could have utilized direct statements and elaboration to additionally clarify the substance of the ironical article. 5. In view of your assessment of the inquiry, reactions, and scoring editorial, what exhortation would you provide for your schoolmates for moving toward an inquiry which requires a savvy investigation of parody? The guidance I would give is ensure you focus on detail and to not be so expansive while talking about the article. Make certain to utilize statements and clarifications. Additionally, make certain to give a lot of models without wandering from the unique circumstance.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Who committs suicide in prison more males or females Free Essays

Research Paper In January 2012 Freddie Dabneylll passed on by driving His Car into the James River. Specialists decided that the reason for Death was self destruction. The Suicide rate in Virginia has been constantly rising. We will compose a custom paper test on Who committs self destruction in jail more guys or females or then again any comparable subject just for you Request Now In 2011/2012 it was accounted for that the self destruction rate arrived at an untouched high at 13 Suicides in a single year. This has been the most noteworthy number of suicides in Virginia for very nearly 10 years. As indicated by the States Medical Examiner Office, Virginians’ are multiple times bound to kick the bucket from a Suicide then a Homicide. The Medical Examiner’s Office said that the pressure of Unemployment, elationship issues, and the need to get to Mental Health Resources all had an influence in the rising Suicide numbers. Self destruction is the demonstration of an individual taking His or Her own Life. Who is bound to end it all in jail guys or Females? Is there a way that we can forestall Suicide? Self destruction can be forestalled; a great many people who end it all give indications of steady pressure and dissatisfaction or Depression. Virginia Department of Health) 90% or People who slaughter themselves have a Diagnosable and treatable Mental Illness. Self destruction is the tenth driving reason for death in The United States of America. In 2007 the Number of People who passed on from Suicide was 34,598. 395,320 individuals were treated in crisis divisions for self exacting Injuries. The quantities of endeavored suicides are constantly higher than self destruction, it is assessed that there are 25 endeav ored suicides for each self destruction. Females from Virginia revealed that they had Mental Health Disorders more than Males. For Males that’s not great since revealing that you have a Mental wellbeing Disorder implies that you really went to find support and get treatment, and with regards to that females look for help more than Males. Clinical Examiner’s Office 2008) In 2007 the CDC (Center of Disease Control) in Virginia directed a review to Measure perspectives in regards to Mental Health Issues. 90% of Virginians concurred with the announcement â€Å"Treatment can help people who have Mental Illnesses†. Just 54% Virginians concurred with the announcement â€Å"People are mindful and thoughtful to others that has a Mental Disorder. Self destruction can be forestalled we simply have be happy to be additionally thinking and worried about individuals who has Mental Disorders. Somewhere in the range of 2008 and 2011 there were 4,344 Suicide Deaths in a 5-Year Suicide pace of 1. 4 for every 100,000 individuals Population in Virginia. Self destruction was the seventh driving reason for Death in Virginia. (Virginia Health Department2008) During this Period of time the main Mechanism of ending it all was Firearms (57. 3%) The second driving Mechanism was Suffocation (18. 6%). The remainder of Mechanisms of fall (1 . 73%), Drowning (1. 38%), (1. 5%) of suicides were by different methods. Virginians of the age 30 and more established has the most elevated pace of Suicide; the self destruction rate for individuals 35 and more seasoned was 18. 6 for each 100,000. The subsequent age bunch that had the Highest Suicide rate was youth 15-25 years of age. Youth from the age 15-25 years of age had a Suicide pace of 15. 5 for every 100,000. In 2004 to 2008 there were an aggregate of 3,420 Suicides, so from 2008 to 2011 the measures of Suicides expanded over a thousand. (Clinical Examiner Office Of Virginia2008) The Suicide rate for Males in Virginia was 3. multiple times higher than Females. The Male Suicide rate was 17. per 100,000; the Female Suicide rate was 5. 2 for each 100,000. The main source of Suicide for guys was the utilization of Firearms. Out of the considerable number of Males that submitted Suicide63. 5% of them utilized Firearms to end it all. For Females the main source of Suicide was Poisoning, 38. 8% of females that ended it all did it by harming their selve s. The Suicide rate for race differs yet no race altogether exceeds the other. Despite the fact that the Suicide rate for Caucasians in Virginia are higher than different races in Virginia, the Suicide rate in Virginia for a Caucasian individual rate is just 2. times higher than African American individual in Virginia. Self destruction is the Leading Cause of Death for Inmates in Custody. In 2009 303 Inmates passed on because of the activity of Suicide. The absolute Number of Suicides in jail for both Male and Females is 2,894. Tragically the Total number of Suicides for Male Inmates was 2,661, and for Female detainees were 232. For what reason do Male Inmates end it all mineral than Female Inmates? There are more male Inmates than Female Inmates. In 2009 the guys made up the greater part of the Jail Population, 88% percent of the Jail populace was guys. Self destruction rates in Jail have diminished each year 2008-2011. The Suicide rate went from 49 Deaths for every 100,000 to 36 Deaths for each 100,000. The male self destruction rate was 43 for every 100,000 Inmates in authority, and the Female Inmate rate was 12 passings for each 100,000. Despite the fact that There More guys in Prison that Females for what reason is a Male multiple times bound to end it all? When being Incarcerated Female Inmates get more steady treatment and advising than Male Inmates. In 1993 the BOP(Board of detainment facilities) built up a unique program for Female Inmates. This is unique assistance for Female Inmates and its essentially utilized for them since its demonstrated that a Female is multiple times more averse to carry out a savage wrongdoing than a Male. This program is practically similar to another opportunity throughout everyday life. (U. S. Branch of Justice Programs2009) When a Female is captured and charged for a wrongdoing, their opportunity to carry out and punishment is indulgent when contrasted with Males. During Incarceration Female Inmates get Educational and Recreation programs. They likewise are allowed a chance to take Job Training and projects to help Female Inmates to be better Woman, This as executed by the U. S Department of Labor. The BOP offers Females Inmates the most ideal Rehabilitation programs. Female Inmates apprenticeship programs offer exceptional classes that offer Females a chance to get a Trade. There are up to 40 distinctive Trade programs for Female Inmates. The BOP likewise has uncommon Mental Health Disorder Programs for Female Inmates. Recall Mental Health In 1994 A sheriff by the Name of Jim Pendegraph made a pledge to improve the treatment Programs for Male Inmates. These projects should support Male Inmates and address the motivation behind why they are imprisoned. These Programs incorporate Therapeutic, instructive and Literacy Programs, While Incarcerated Male Inmates who are qualified might be permitted to get treatment. This isn’t a Law Implemented by the BOP however, this is something a Local Sheriff concocted to better the Community. It is realized that while in Prison Females get greater treatment and preferred chances to better themselves over Males. Female Inmates additionally get More Therapy for Mental Health Disorders than Males. Due to the favorable circumstances that Female Inmates have over Male Inmates this is the motivation behind why Males end it all More than Females. In Society period Males end it all more than Females, since Females get treated more for their Mental Health Disorders that Males. At the point when a Female has a Mental Health Disorder she is bound to report it and endeavor to get Help. Guys don’t report the way that they have mental issues and this hazard factor is the fundamental explanation Males end it all more than Females. (Clinical Examiner’s Office of Virgin2009) Suicide in Virginia and in the U. S is an issue that should be approach and discussion about additional in Society. Just 54% of individuals in Virginia concurred with the way that individuals are minding to others that. Step by step instructions to refer to Who committs self destruction in jail more guys or females, Papers

Saturday, June 6, 2020

How Many Practice SATs Should I Take

Although it’s indispensable for SAT prep, The Official SAT Study Guide from the College Board isn’t complete on its own†¦ it really needs to be supplemented with more in depth lessons and explanations of questions. You can get that from us at Magoosh (or elsewhere), along with a healthy dose of more personalized practice, which every SAT prep book lacks. Books just can’t adapt to what you need as well as practice on a computer, sadly. But if you do supplement it, The Official SAT Study Guide (we usually call it the â€Å"blue book†) is one of the best books for one incontrovertible reason: it has ten practice tests in it. And they’re real. No prep company makes questions that are absolutely 100% the same as what the College Board puts out. We try, and we come remarkably close, but nothing beats the real deal. Ten tests, though? Who wants to sit down to take the SAT ten times? I mean, really. That’s absurd, right? Take 3 to 5 mock exams daily (not really) You’ll want to sit down and time yourself according to the SAT test format at least three times before the day of your test. You can really get over the average SAT score hump just by getting used to the taking it. Whats more pick, out your SAT calculator and stick with it. I recommend using a solid five of those practice tests from the blue book as full length tests. Don’t do them all in one week; instead, spread them out over a couple of months. And save two of them for the last weeks before the test, when you won’t have enough time to build new skills. Use five tests for section practice Doing SAT practice for 30 minutes or an hour several times a week can make a big difference in your score. If you do one 25-minute section or a 20-minute and a 10-minute section from the book four times per week, you’ll go through about 5 of those official tests in two months. Thatll really get you used to seeing all of the SAT question types. Pair that with the five to use for full-length practice, and you’re golden. Again, you’d want to supplement that practice with some more focused lessons. You’ll grow a lot more if you sit down with explanations—not just questions—and concentrate on those subjects that you’re weakest in, rather than taking the mash-up that is a real SAT section. Also, as you use those individual sections, keep track of the clock. When time’s up, stop. It’s good for getting used to the pressure, and it keeps you from spending hours laboring over problems which you won’t even get explanations for. Do as many of the official SATs as possible Really, doing them all is the best way to go. But remember to study, as well†¦ don’t only take practice tests. It will definitely get you used to the SAT format, but it won’t get you the scores you want. Check out the One Month SAT Study Schedule for more focused practice. And if youre really overly concerned about getting enough practice, try your hand at an ACT practice test. In comparing the ACT vs SAT, there are certainly disparities, but also plenty of similarities. You may find, using our nifty ACT-SAT score conversion chart that youre more suited for the ACT.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Edwin Howard Armstrong, Inventor of FM Radio

Edwin Howard Armstrong (December 18, 1890–February 1, 1954) was an American inventor and one of the great engineers of the 20th century. He is best known for developing the technology for FM (frequency modulation) radio. Armstrong won numerous patents for his inventions and was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1980. Fast Facts: Edwin Howard Armstrong Known For: Armstrong was an accomplished inventor who developed the technology for FM radio.Born: December 18, 1890 in New York, New YorkParents: John and Emily ArmstrongDied: February 1, 1954 in New York, New YorkEducation: Columbia UniversityAwards and Honors: National Inventors Hall of Fame, Institute of Radio Engineers Medal of Honor, French Legion of Honor, Franklin MedalSpouse: Marion MacInnis (m.  1922-1954) Early Life Armstrong was born in New York City on December 18, 1890, the son of John and Emily Armstrong. His father was an employee of Oxford University Press, while his mother was deeply involved in the Presbyterian Church. When he was still very young Armstrong became afflicted with St. Vitus Dance—a muscular disorder—which forced him to be home-schooled for two years. Education Armstrong was only 11 years old when Guglielmo Marconi made the first trans-Atlantic radio transmission. Enthralled, the young Armstrong began studying radio and building homemade wireless equipment, including a 125-foot antenna in his parents backyard. His interest in science and technology took Armstrong to Columbia University, where he studied at the schools Hartley Laboratories and made a strong impression on several of his professors. He finished college in 1913 with a degree in electrical engineering. Regenerative Circuit The same year he graduated, Armstrong invented the regenerative or feedback circuit. Regeneration amplification worked by feeding a received radio signal through a radio tube 20,000 times per second, increasing the power of the received radio signal and allowing radio broadcasts to have a greater range. In 1914, Armstrong was awarded a patent for this invention. His success, however, was short-lived; the following year another inventor, Lee de Forest, filed several applications for competing patents. De Forest believed that he had developed the regenerative circuit first, as did several other inventors who became involved in the legal dispute that lasted many years. Although an initial case was resolved in Armstrongs favor, a later decision ruled that De Forest was the true inventor of the regenerative circuit. This was Armstrongs first experience with the legal system that would later cause him so much turmoil. FM Radio Armstrong is most commonly known for inventing frequency modulation, or FM radio, in 1933. FM improved the audio signal of radio by controlling the static caused by electrical equipment and the earths atmosphere. Prior to this, amplitude modulation (AM) radio had been extremely susceptible to such interference, which was what prompted Armstrong to investigate the problem in the first place. He conducted his experiments in the basement of Columbia Universitys Philosophy Hall. In 1933, Armstrong received U.S. patent 1,342,885 for a Method of Receiving High-Frequency Oscillations Radio for his FM technology. Again, Armstrong was not the only one experimenting with such technology. Scientists at the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) were also testing frequency modulation techniques to improve radio transmissions. In 1934, Armstrong presented his latest finding to a group of RCA officials; he later demonstrated the power of the technology using an antenna at the top of the Empire State Building. RCA, however, decided not to invest in the technology and instead focused on television broadcasting. Armstrong had not lost faith in his discovery, though. He continued to refine and promote FM radio technology, first by partnering with smaller companies such as General Electric and then by presenting the technology to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Unlike the RCA officials, those at the FCC presentation were impressed by Armstrongs demonstration; when he played them a jazz recording over FM radio, they were struck by the clarity of the sound. Improvements to FM technology over the 1930s made it more and more competitive with existing technologies. In 1940, the FCC decided to create a commercial FM service, which launched the following year with 40 channels. However, the outbreak of World War II limited the resources that could be put toward new radio infrastructure. Conflicts with RCA—which was still using AM transmissions—also prevented FM radio from taking off. It was not until after the war that the technology began to win popular support. In 1940, RCA, seeing that it was losing the technological race, tried to license Armstrongs patents, but he refused the offer. The company then developed its own FM system. Armstrong accused RCA of patent infringement and began litigation against the company, hoping to win damages for lost royalties. Death Armstrongs inventions made him a rich man, and he held 42 patents in his lifetime. However, he also found himself embroiled in protracted legal disputes with RCA, which viewed FM radio as a threat to its AM radio business. Much of Armstrongs time, as a consequence of the litigation, was devoted to legal matters rather than work on new inventions. Struggling with personal and financial problems, Armstrong committed suicide in 1954 by jumping to his death from his New York City apartment. He was buried in Merrimac, Massachusetts. Legacy In addition to frequency modulation, Armstrong is also known for developing a number of other key innovations. Every radio or television set today makes use of one or more of his inventions. Armstrong even invented the superheterodyne tuner that allowed radios to tune into different radio stations. During the 1960s, NASA used FM transmissions to communicate with its astronauts while they were in space. Today, FM technology is still used throughout the world for most forms of audio broadcasting. Sources Sterling, Christopher H., and Michael C. Keith.  Sounds of Change: a History of FM Broadcasting in America. University of North Carolina Press, 2008.Richter, William A.  Radio: a Complete Guide to the Industry. Lang, 2006.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Islam And Islam Islam, Terrorism, And War Essay

Islamic authority’ because becoming ‘scholars or Ulama of Islam’ via western secular academia is relatively a new phenomenon for majority of Muslims (Moosa 2015). Since the horrific events of 9/11, Islam and Muslims especially has been the crux of much censure and debated in the media. Muslims have been widely discussed by themes of ‘migration’, ‘terrorism’, and ‘war’. In the meta-analyses on the representation of Muslims and Islam in the media between 2000-2015, there is the rise of Orientalist discourses in many mainstream media channels. The relationship between Western nations and Muslims has been reinterpreted as divided societies. Thus, the ‘clash of civilizations’ proposition has gained acceptance in intellectual debates and media coverages. There is also a dominant antagonistic view about Islam and Muslims in many western countries (Ahmed and Matthes 2016). The meta-study and recent many researches show that Muslims and Islam tend to be negatively framed, which consequently led to the domination of the mass media via displays of fear and anger as well as anti-Muslim sentiments (Bail 2 015). In this context, Muslim intellectuals have faced fierce criticism from various journalists and academics. For instance, prominent Muslims intellectuals Tariq Ramadan has been criticized by doublespeak for general western society and internal Muslims communities (Fourest 2008) and Khaled Abou El Fadl has been blamed by being a stealth Islamist due to his works on Islam and politicsShow MoreRelatedThe Islamic View On Self Harm And Suicide Attacks1298 Words   |  6 Pages There is no issue in this contemporary world that is more misinterpreted than that of Islam and its views on terrorism and violence. If suicide and self harm are forbidden in Islam, why do Islamic terrorists conduct and take part in suicide bombings? 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Samuel Huntingtons â€Å"the clash of civilizations,† is based on the hypothesis: â€Å"In the post-Cold War world the most important distinctions among people are not ideological, political, or economic. They are cultural†. (Huntington, 1996, p. 21) Huntington recognizes the significance of the realist approach that the nation states will stay as the mostRead MoreAmerican Neo Orientalism And The Justification For The War On Terror 1426 Words   |  6 Pages2016 Ex Oriente Lux: American neo-Orientalism and the Justification for the ‘War on Terror’ The September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon fundamentally changed the dynamic of American identity threatening it’s hegemony and creating a space of insecurity thus necessitating a reassertion of state authority. 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Heineken free essay sample

When people are talking about those football matches, Heineken’s image will come up coincidentally, undoubtedly. The potential impact of the marketing outcome of Heineken is to some extent, very huge and continuous. The way how Heineken sponsors the Champion League and how those marketing campaigns are taken place, as a result, are worthy dealing with. In the meanwhile, the Super League in China has witnessed its boom. Since Heineken does not sell very â€Å"well† in Chinese market, lacking of feasible marketing strategies is one of the key matters why its business doesn’t run smoothly. As a result, this report mainly focuses on Heineken’s marketing approach in UEFA Champion League by analyzing its â€Å"Sports Marketing† patterns, and to figure out possible solutions for Super League plus the Chinese Heineken market. The following parts will in succession describe Heineken Global Market and Chinese Heineken Market, discuss the    approach in details and give suggestions that how it can also be applied to help expand and strengthen Heineken’s business in Chinese market. Introduction It was in 1863, the year which Heineken was founded by Gerard Adrian Heineken in Amsterdam (Kriscenski, A. 012). Today, Heineken has already enjoyed its top position in market, being as one of the most popular beer brands in the world. Great success has been witnessed in Heineken historically, especially in European countries, according to Griffin amp; Weber (2006). However, Heineken is not only successful in Europe, but also made it in other parts of the world. (See figure 1 in Appendix). Its great success in Europe which is described as the base of beer industry, is partly counting on that European people like drinking. And the sports marketing strategies of Heineken in Champion League are mainly classified as two strategic domains, stated by Fullerton and Merz (2008), theme-based and alignment-based. Apart from that, Heineken launched its app related to Champion League to promote the sales as well as to manage their relationship with the target audiences. But, expanding outside of the Europe, Heineken seems not to share a profitable market in Eastern Asia, to name the typical one, China. According to Zhou(2012), one major problem has been found lying in the promotion patterns of Heineken in Chinese market, along with three other key findings. This report mainly aims at analyzing Heineken’s marketing patterns in Europe with UEFA Champion League, by creating better understanding of the campaigns, a possible solution to the underperformed China Heineken market will be proposed. The following report is classified into five parts, including part 1, an overview of the Heineken market globally and in Europe, part 2, an analysis of Heineken Chinese market with major problems found out, after that, in part 3 Heineken’s marketing cooperation with UEFA Champion league will be described in details, followed by professional analysis in part 4. Finally, recommendations will be addressed to provide feasible approach for China Heineken marketers. After these five parts mentioned before, a comprehensive conclusion will be summarizing the whole report. The elaborate analyses of Heineken’s sports marketing strategies weigh a most, while the suggestions and recommendations are written less detailed. 1. Global overview of Heineken 1. 1 Brief introduction Heineken is one of the most popular beer brands in the world. It was founded by Gerard Adrian Heineken in Amsterdam in 1863. And it merged its biggest competitor—Amstel in 1968. Nowadays, according to Li Bing (2011), the beer of Heineken was sold like hot cakes in 170 countries all over the world. 1. 2 Heineken’s success in Europe Heineken’s product and operating business model is quite successful in the world, especially in Europe. The major base of beer industry is in Europe, which takes 40% of the global beer production. As the greatest brewery group in Europe, Heineken’s European production quota summed up to 73%, its production amount increased by 39% in the past decade. There are some countries make great contributions to Heineken’s success in European market: . 2. 1 Netherlands Heineken owns 52% of the market quota in Netherlands, and it makes Heineken became the most powerful market leader since the percentage is much higher than its competitors: Grolsch (15% market quota) and Verenigde (15% market quota). Although Heineken’s market share had decreased from 45% in 1980 to 30% in 1991, the downturn was stopped by lau nching its innovative product packaging. Meanwhile, the client service strategy improved its market share in restaurant and cafe. Heineken successfully protected its dominant market position. 1. 2. 2 Spain Heineken enter in Spanish (the third largest beer consumption country in the European Union) market in 1960s, which is later than its entering of other European countries. In order to make succeed in Spanish operating activities, Heineken purchased 37% shares of El Aguilia (a local beer company) at that time. Now, Heineken already holds 71% shares of El Aguilia. Heineken decided to reorganize the production model of El Aguilia, which was always marred by its outdated technology and poor brand image. Heineken adjusted the market positioning of Aguilia beer to standard position and promoted Heineken beer in top market. Finally, Heineken takes a great proportion of Spain high-class beer market. 1. 2. 3 Britain In UK, the production of Amstel beer was started in 1997. Although the British market congested, Heineken held an outstanding growing speed. The sales volume of Heineken Export processed beer exceeded the total sales volume of top beer market in Britain. At the same time, Heineken Filtered draft beer maintained a stable market quota though facing competitors’ large-scale sales promotion. Since Britain is the second largest beer consumption country in Europe, Heineken made great efforts on it. The consumption model in UK is different from other European countries, more than 80% beer are consumed in bars, which always have direct connection with brewery. So Heineken built up connection with Whitbread brewer and let them brew low-alcohol beer to cater for British’s preference. This kind of Heineken low-alcohol is well-received in Britain and also improved Heineken’s brand awareness in UK. 1. 2. 4 Germany From the perspective of consumption, Germany is the largest beer market in the world. However, Heineken just entered in Germany in 1993. It is because Germany has a Purity Law, which strictly pointed out that the beer only can be made  by using malt,  oats,  water  and  yeast. In addition, Heineken’s development potential was limited by customers’ loyalty towards German local brewery. Therefore, Heineken decided to sale the beer through distribution channels, such as high-class restaurant and cafe. At present, there are more than 2,000 bars and restaurants provide Heineken beer in Germany. 1. 2. 5 Other countries in Europe Heineken has merged many local beer companies in Europe to maintain the eading position in brewery market. For instance, Heineken merged Calanda and Halddengut beer companies in Switzerland. These two local brands have highly improved customer loyalty and profit for Heineken in Switzerland. The brand awareness is also improved by sponsoring big sports events, such as UEFA Champions League. Due to the acceptance and recognition of beer in Eastern European customers, Heineken s till has huge potential development in Eastern Europe. It always takes the Top 3 sales volume in most of the European countries. 1. Heineken’s success in the world Heineken is not only successful in Europe, but also made success in other parts of the world. Its total profit is increasing steadily year by year. (See Appendix Figure 1: Bar chart of Heineken’s income and profit from 2009 to 2012) Heineken has good performance in North America, although there is the hometown of its competitors—Miller and Budweiser. Heineken owns many sub-brands, such as Amstel, and cooperative companies around the world. Heineken is moving forward to improve the sales performance in Central and South America. Its operation is still expanding in African countries, such as Angola and Nigeria. Besides, the sales volume in the Asian-Pacific region is growing by 10% per year, of which China takes half of the consumption volume. 1. 3 Marketing strategy of Heineken in the world The main reason that Heineken succeeded in the world market, particularly in European market, is that they use STP (Segmenting, Targeting and Positioning) strategy to strengthen and expand the market. It caters to each target country’s customers by combining its core brand (Heineken, Amstel, Murphy’s and Buckler’s) with those local companies. That is, building up strategic brand or regional brand to win customers’ loyalty and preference of the brand. The general methods that Heineken adopts are: * Adopt a domestic â€Å"standardized brand† which aims to the main primary consumption market, For instance, using the â€Å"Dreher† brand in Italy and using â€Å"Tiger† brand in Singapore. * Apply a classic brand to occupy the middle-class market. It might be a local brand, such as â€Å"Aguila† in Spain or â€Å"Amstel† brand. * Use Heineken in the top high-class market. The beer could be made locally or exported to the target countries. The brand image and quality are carefully controlled by the headquarters in Amsterdam. (See Appendix Figure2: Branding for different market level) The Heineken Company also realized that the expectation and taste are clearly different in diverse area. Therefore, the head office gives high autonomous rights to the subsidiaries. This strategy easily makes Heineken’s products well-received and popular in each different local market. With the goal-oriented operation and the guidance of clever marketing strategy, Heineken is moving forward to make great development in the future. . Overview of Heineken in China 2. 1 Brief introduction (See Appendix Figure 3: Beer volume share by market: 2010) As the biggest beer market, China accounts for 25 percent of the world’s beer volume. In the meantime, the beer market has continuously growing in China since 1995. According to Tan (2011), the regional director of Heineken-Asian Pacific Brewery, international premium beer become more a nd more attractive of Chinese consumers, the segment of premium beer consumption has increased by almost 25 times since 1995. The tremendous commercial opportunity attracts lots of breweries overseas who want to dominate in China’s beer market, including Heineken. Furong(2009) introduced that Shanghai Asia Pacific Brewery Co. , Ltd controlling the share of Shanghai MILA brewery was the symbol of Heineken entered in Chinese market in 1998. MILA brewery produces and sells both Tiger and Heineken. Heineken focus on the high-end market while Tiger focus on the middle market. In 1997, Heineken took control on Hainan brewery. So far, Heineken’s strategy in China formed basically as centered on Hainan and Shanghai. Heineken promote their product largely in western restaurant and night entertainment place. In the same time, the company set a premium portfolio targeting varying price points and consumer tastes. According to Tan (2011), Heineken is treated as super premium, Tiger is affordable premium. The Anchor is their mainstream, and HAINAN beer as well as AOKE is viewed as discount product. They also provide dark beer—the MURPHYS, and cider—the STRONGBOW. Those different kinds of beers increase the variety of tastes available to Chinese consumer, also target different groups based on their income level and different consumption habit. . 2 Sales strategy Under the tense competition in Chinese beer marketing, Heineken has developed a series of strategies specific to Chinese consumer: Firstly, all the beers are imported with original packaging. According to Tan (2011), the company thought consumers in China have sense of original packaging product identity, especially on premium pr oduct. Secondly, Qiang (2006) claimed in the book that the package of Heineken is different from other beer in Chinese market. The unique package is good for consumer to recognize the brand. Thirdly, Heineken has segmented China’s market. It focuses on the market in southern China, because people in Pearl River delta have relatively higher income level, lots of rich people here can afford premium beer, so they became target consumers of Heineken. 2. 3 Promotion Heineken is always spending a large sum of money on marketing. In 1999, according to Qiang (2006), it spent around 14 percent of their gross income on marketing. Heineken is well known as the sponsor of UDFA Champions League, but it also hosted tennis competition in Shanghai. Tennis is always seen as noble sport in China, targeting on high income level people makes Heineken always focus on this kind of â€Å"rich people† activities. The competition has attracted lots of attention. People who follow these activities started to get involved in it. Besides, Heineken see young adult as huge potential customer group, so they also hosted some music festivals to draw attention from young people. They invited band and singers from both China and other countries like America, Australia. Some newspaper and website reported that the music festival has held successfully. Those fans that came to the concert all had great time according to the report, not only because of the music, but also the atmosphere that Heineken created. After the festival, the brand deeply rooted in the hearts of those young fans. 2. 4 The frustration Despite of the well performance in European and American market, Heineken is not always doing well in China. It lost around 160 million dollars every year before 2006. According to Furong(2009), a huge competitor of Heineken, the American brand Budweiser, exceeded Heineken, took up over 50 percent of premium beer market share in China. There is several reasons lead to this consequence: First of all, all the beers are imported directly from Holland. This strategy works at the beginning. But the cost of importing beer with original packaging directly from Europe is excessive for the company. At the same time, Chinese consumer became more mature since the economy globalization, and they started to feel less novelty about foreign beer brand. Heineken’s competitor Budweiser has the indigenization strategy to reduce cost. Unlike Budweiser, Heineken had no plan for indigenization, so the cost is still too high, which directly cause negative profit. Secondly, even though Chinese beer market is huge, the consumption of premium beer segment is no more than 10 percent of the total market (see table 2). Most large beer brand are centered in coastal cities besides Heineken, result in even larger competition. Meanwhile, not all Chinese people can afford the relatively high beer price. Most of Chinese think the price of local beer are lower and more acceptable than Heineken. And the high cost of importing original package make the price even higher than other premium beer in China. Thirdly, regardless the brand image Heineken created, people are focus more on the taste of the beer now. They feel bitter is not what they want in their fizzy light-alcohol drinks. Chinese people prefer those beers which cater their taste, like the local brand—Tsingtao. Fourthly, Heineken has only few advertisements in mainland China. In selling season, all other beer companies like Tsingtao and Budweiser are doing lots of sales promotion. On contrast, Heineken stay the same strategy as before, without doing large amount of mass media advertisement or continually sales event. This condition result in brand name awareness of Heineken became lower than other beer brand. These reasons make Heineken hard to compete with Chinese local beer company or even other foreign one, furthermore, leads to its bad performance in China’s market. (See appendix Figure 4: China by segment: 2010(mhl)) 3. Heineken, the Sponsor of Champions League in last 19 years Every Year the biggest task for those staffs from Heineken is the sponsorship agreement for the UEFA Champions League. Successfully, they obtain the extension of sponsorship for the UEFA Super Cup in 2012 to 2015. What prompted Heineken to focus on about the Sponsorship? 3. 1 Introduction of UEFA First of all, here is the introduction of the UEFA Champions League. As the world’s most prestigious football tournament, Club’s cup is an annual continental blub football competition organized by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) since 1955 for those top football clubs in Europe. The most- watched UEFA Final to date, as well as the most watched sporting event worldwide in 2011, appealed 178. 7 million television viewers. And this is also the feast of sponsors. Like the FIFA World Cup and Olympic games, a group of corporations and famous brands sponsor the UEFA Champions League. The tournaments current main sponsors are: Ford Gazprom Heineken (excluding Spain, Turkey, France, Switzerland and Russia, where alcohol sponsorship is restricted. In Spain, France, and Switzerland the Heineken adboard is replaced by an Enjoy responsibly or open your world adboard and in Russia the Heineken adboard is replaced by a No To Racism adboard). MasterCard, Sony Computer Entertainment Europe, UniCredit, HTC These main sponsors were guaranteed to have the priority on television advertisements during games with the maximum exposure. What should the Heineken focused on is the real effect of this ads and exposure. . 2 The cooperation of Heineken and UEFA Heineken has successfully been a sponsor of the UEFA Champions League since 1994 with and continues their long-term association with this prestigious tournament. Actually, the sponsorship of Heineken has become a cornerstone of its marketing communication, tremendously promoting the brand image on a worldwide scale. Moreover, th e partnership with Champions league will continue to improve the perceived value of Heineken brand and expect to extend the leadership with the premium beer segment in the world. 3. 3 How Heineken works with this sponsorship With an increasing number of TV viewers watching live coverage of the UEFA Champions League year by year, which more than 140 million in 2011, this global sporting event has become synonymous with the Heineken brand because of the exposure promotion. When football fans drinks watch the game, they would like to fancy they have some cold Heineken in their fridge. When they do not have, they tend to buy a dozen for next game next week. On the other hand, they would like to get in a bar which is with the big logos of UEFA champions League and Heineken and then buy some Heineken directly. This association of beer and football is simple but proved to be effective. Also, Heineken emphasizes its strategy of bringing the UEFA Champions League closer to the soccer fans. Outside the Europe market, last 3 years, Heineken has taken its promotion team and ads of UEFA Champions League into Latin American and Asia. They gave fans a unique opportunity to see this famous sporting icon first-hand. In 2008, more than 350 fans participated the competition of â€Å"Heineken Star Final† and finally attended the UEFA Champions League Final in Moscow. And over 150 consumers watched the final match at a Grand Safari Location in South Africa, as  part of the Heineken Star Final competition. Moreover, a few lucky fans got an opportunity to watch the warm-up from the pitch-side before the game started, offered by the Heineken Back Stadium Pass. This activity seems to be simple and small scale. However, it makes an instant effect of their consumers. Everyone knows Heineken is the choices in the month of the UEFA Champions League in subconscious and all fans would like to try his or her luck. Especially the fans form Asia and Latin American market, it is expensive to buy both the match ticket and plane ticket to see a live game. But Heineken make this event to the fans closer. 3. 4 Brief Analysis about Success in Sport Marketing 3. 4. 1 Target Market â€Å"The UEFA Champions League is one of the worlds premier sporting competitions with unrivalled international reach and professional standards. This makes it a perfect match for Heineken, the worlds most international premium beer brand† said by Alexis Nasard, chief commercial officer at Heineken. The Coke companies can make promotion toward to those teenagers who play basketball. However, considering the limit of age, the Heineken surely had better to choose its target market as football fans. 3. 4. 2 Long term Beer Culture An exciting game with beer is kind of like a wonderful movie with popcorn. Maximizing the intrinsic value of beer and football is the key work of all beer companies. When people get out of work, what they need is a relax activity but also stimulate their vitality. Football match should be a good choice. And a football match with a cup of superior beer would be perfect! Football game is the most popular sport in the world, and Heineken catch this market as a first mover, since they know only a long term consumption culture can make Heineken sustainable. 3. 4. 3 Not only get in, but also get in well and sustainable The culture of beer can be formed by a strong promotion. However, beer is like cigarette, excessive consumption can cause enormous social problem. In this case, Heineken expertly makes its beer culture healthier and more positive. Embracing quality over quantity, Heineken, as a premium beer brand, seeks to build a responsible drinking culture when consumers enjoy football game. As known, the overuse of the alcohol often became the blasting fuse of those brawl fights of football fans. Therefore, according strategy was launched in 2008 and Enjoy Heineken Responsibly’ was developed. This initiative launch aims to raise awareness around responsible alcohol consumption among those football fans who are also the beer drinkers. The example of commitment to addressing this issue  was the decision to promote the ‘responsible drinking’ tagline on promotional boards at UEFA Champions League matches. It can sell a positive image of Heineken brand in a global scale, especially for those teenager fans. . 5 The Interaction of Heineken with Champions League The other factor makes the case of Heineken successful is the interaction of Heineken. Comparing to the other Beer brands, Heineken is activating its sponsorship of the UEFA Champions League soccer tournament through a brand new mobile application that enables the users to have a grand event withou t buying the live ticket. And our group is consciously focused on this new mode of market promotion, which may be crucial for the secondary rise in China market. In modern society, people cannot enjoy the football game simply because their job. The upsurge of the app in the cellphone makes people enjoy the game more convenient. And Heineken seize this marketing chance. (See Appendix Picture 1) All these apps are available on Facebook page of Heineken, also through Apple’s App store. The latest app lets users play live with every UEFA Champions League match when they are watching TV. Users can predict the outcome of the coming game in real – time to score points and create their league. Consumers are happy to see their names on the Heineken’s national leaderboards because they have a chance to win a prize on the global scale. This is a dramatically successful case of Heineken is embracing mobile world. At the base level, it’s another way for Heineken to reach customers who are passionate about soccer and the UEFA tournament, simple but efficient. 4. Professional Analysis about Heineken Case 4. 1 Sports Marketing Over the past decades, â€Å"Sports marketing† has expanded to a crowded, billion-dollar global industry. (DeVous, S. 1994) According to Gray amp; McEvoy (2005), â€Å"Sport Marketing† is the noun described as the activities of industrial and consumer product and service marketers who gradually increase the use of sport as a vehicle of promotion. Dating back to 1978, the genesis of this term has been attributed in the Advertising Age. â€Å"Marketing through sport; that is using sport as a promotional vehicle or sponsorship platform for companies that market consumer, and to a lesser extent, industrial products. † best characterized the series of events and activities, noted by Gray and McEvoy (2005), who have been working on a compilation recently for a literature of sports marketing.. However, though people started to be aware the use of sports events as a marketing promotion tool, the way they activities are carried out diversified dramatically. . 2 Strategic Domains In a written report published in 2008, it clarified that there exist four strategic domains in sports marketing campaigns, including the theme-based, product-based, alignment-based, and sports-based strategic domains. (Fullerton, S. amp; Merz, G. R. , 2008) By creating better understanding of those strategic domains, Heineken’s marketing activiti es in UEFA can be summarized into theme-based and alignment-based strategies. * Theme-Based * Alignment-Based 4. 3 Theme – Based Strategies According to Fullerton and Merz (2008), theme-based strategies are described as incorporating a sports theme with traditional marketing strategy into the marketing procedure for non-sport products. The use of copy platform related to sports or the advertisement of products in sports-connected media can both be chosen by the marketers. Either of these options should effectively come near the customers. A most important point of theme-based strategies is that, â€Å"the marketers efforts are not predicated upon an official elationship with any specific sports property in its effort to create the sports overlay for its marketing efforts†, they stated. ( The four domains of sports marketing: A conceptual framework, 2008) 4. 4 Alignment – Based Strategies Use the Olympic Games as an example. McDonald’s packaging and advertising officially feature its relationship with the Games, in order to increase its sales in fast food. Volvo uses its sponsorship of a high profile sailing event to strengthen the publics perception of the carmaker as one that exudes prestige while concurrently emphasizing safety and technology. While the strategic initiatives that augment the sponsorship are important, the foundation for the resultant strategy is the fact that the marketer, by virtue of its official sponsorship, is highly integrated within the sports environment. Thus, the task for these marketers of nonsports products is one of implementing strategic initiatives that allow them to capitalize upon their position within this realm of the sports marketing environment. Such initiatives are alternatively characterized as leveraging or activation. Examples abound, traditional sponsorship patterns are adopted frequently, to name a few, the Olympics’ and the World Cup of Soccer’s relationships with Coca-Cola are the most eye-catching cases. What’s more, other sponsors in Olympic, including Lenovo Computers, McDonalds, as well as John Hancock Life Insurance are also noteworthy. 4. 5 Applications in Recent Decades Firmly believing that they have scratched the sweet spot with UEFA sponsorship, Heineken not only stretches its business into football fields. Other than this, another big sports event U. S. Open Tennis Championships is with no exception, being sponsored continuously by Heineken. (Heineken plans largest marketing campaign in booming imported beer category. 1999) Furthermore, Heineken involves in other key marketing initiatives, including an expanded Hispanic market promotional program, new packaging, major musical events, figured out by Editors, B. (1999). 5. 1 China’s Prospective Can Heineken duplicate its success into Chinese market? As known, Chinese football seems to be a weakness when talking about this new world power. Corruption and unhealthy system make Chinese football ugly and lose the support in whole country. Chinese football, over the years, has rarely received  much coverage on a global scale. However, that is changing quickly. It’s gaining more and more attention of late, as teams such as Shanghai Shenhua  and Guangzhou Evergrande  have stretched  their financial muscle to the very limit – with some very big names from Europe and beyond deciding to join the CSL (Chinese Super League). In Season 2012 CSL, many clubs fighting for their AFC qualification and defending title. This is the most competitive season in the CSL history. Among these teams, Guangzhou Evergrande heavily invested in their â€Å"Arms race†, and this lead Super League into an unprecedented 100 million age. And a lot of clubs would like to imitate this success mode and invest hundred million for recruitment and buying those super stars. With more money, this upgraded Super League will develop more opportunity of its potential market. The operation of Guangzhou Evergrande with a big integrated marketing model is actually a useful exploration for CSL becoming the world-class professional league. Observing the operation of the Super League last season, the multiple operating points is a huge breakthrough of Chinas sports industry. This is especially noteworthy for those companies would like to exploit the Chinese market. China is bidding to be the new face of Asian football. The money is there, the quality of players are increasing and you know it’s got promise when a World Cup winning coach, in Marcelo Lippi,  moves into Guangzhou Evergrande. However, what is the most appealing point for those marketing departments of famous brands? It is the strong return of CCTV which greatly stimulated the investor to burn their money. Especially the real estate business acts as the main force for this round of CSL investors. All this signals make the Super League in China quite a potential target for Heineken. A market with 1. 3 billion people and urbanization has become a catalyst of the beer culture among young generation. It’s still expanding at a rapid rate. And it’s not going to stop, for anyone. 5. 2 Recommendation Can Heineken duplicate its success into Chinese market and have a second rise? Before answering this question, we need to analyze the problem Heineken mentioned in the second part. First, the original package is still not appealing to Chinese consumers; besides, the shipping cost is too high for Heineken to maintain high profit. However, the reason of high cost is actually lack of the economics of scale which can be solved by gain the approval of the brand value. Second, the high price limits Heineken to target the rich people. Facing the huge competition in premium beer market, it is still a problem for Heineken to stand out. However, our group considers that, with a bloomy football league in the new market, using the theme based and alignment based strategies, Heineken is going to offset the previous inefficient promotion problems in China. What Heineken should do is make a full use of the China’s Super league and draft the correct strategies. Here are our recommended strategies. First, we would like to focus talking about the right time of Theme – Based strategies. When we mentioned about the failure, the incomprehension of the brand value is the main problem Heineken face in China. And it is the very problem let us remind of the successful case of UEFA champions League. The sport theme with beer product is the direct way for this historic brand to build up its culture of quality life and theme of enjoying the game to the market. Facing a bloomy market of China’s football league, both the advertisement of products and the sports connected media can be the best solution for the market promotion. The better brand penetration of Heineken into this football event, the higher will be the acceptability. What should Heineken do if it requires this effect? On the one hand, the market department should design a typical circumjacent product, such as fashion Green Logo T shirt, which can link the football game with beer consumption. On the other hand, bring the best live coverage techniques from European into those sports channel. And above all, the adequate advertisement is of necessity in this part. With an acceptation of brand value, consumer would accept the high price of this brand more easily. After these theme work, when talking about Heineken, what those football fans will recall are a green powerful logo, a fashion brand and a vigorous lifestyle, but not only a beer brand. Second, the Alignment – based strategy is also an instantly effective solution for Heineken to get into China’s Super League. When seeing the UEFA champions League, we can recall the green logo of Heineken. Same effect will be seen in CSL. When fans talks about the Guangzhou Evergrande, the first association of the football club is not the super star but its powerful sponsor Evergrande, a famous real estate company. The CSL will rise abruptly and the exposure rate of this league will come back to this super nation in the near future. If Heineken and CSL can make an agreement in the next five years, it will become the milestone of Heineken brand. Just imagine the market of the most popular sport in the country with the largest population, it worth trying. Third, the cellphone application mode can be successful in China as well. According to Shan Phillips (2010), the number of Chinese mobile phone users has reached 755 million, which is more than the American. The increasing mobile users means the beer amp; football culture can be established via a brand new media. Unlike those European, Chinese elites are busy with their jobs, they would not spend much of time at football live coverage. Accordingly, the application of cellphone can act an important role among those football fans without a completed time for games. With an application developed by Heineken Group, fans will spend their time to interact with Heineken event holders and also other fans on this app. This will be the great culture building in China’s market. With these strategies, can this beer brand have a second rise in China market with its successful experience of UEFA Champions League? With the tool of an emergent CSL, can Heineken handle the unique features in Chinese market as mention in the second part? With the preparation above, definitely, our answer is YES! Conclusion From the case analysis and strategy model in our report, we can draw a conclusion that it is good for Heineken to apply its successful European marketing strategy to China. In this way, Heineken should make efforts in branding and mainly focus on the 4 aspects (indigenization, price, taste and advertisement), also were the things that made them performed not so well in Chinese beer market.