Sunday, May 17, 2020

Edwin Howard Armstrong, Inventor of FM Radio

Edwin Howard Armstrong (December 18, 1890–February 1, 1954) was an American inventor and one of the great engineers of the 20th century. He is best known for developing the technology for FM (frequency modulation) radio. Armstrong won numerous patents for his inventions and was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1980. Fast Facts: Edwin Howard Armstrong Known For: Armstrong was an accomplished inventor who developed the technology for FM radio.Born: December 18, 1890 in New York, New YorkParents: John and Emily ArmstrongDied: February 1, 1954 in New York, New YorkEducation: Columbia UniversityAwards and Honors: National Inventors Hall of Fame, Institute of Radio Engineers Medal of Honor, French Legion of Honor, Franklin MedalSpouse: Marion MacInnis (m.  1922-1954) Early Life Armstrong was born in New York City on December 18, 1890, the son of John and Emily Armstrong. His father was an employee of Oxford University Press, while his mother was deeply involved in the Presbyterian Church. When he was still very young Armstrong became afflicted with St. Vitus Dance—a muscular disorder—which forced him to be home-schooled for two years. Education Armstrong was only 11 years old when Guglielmo Marconi made the first trans-Atlantic radio transmission. Enthralled, the young Armstrong began studying radio and building homemade wireless equipment, including a 125-foot antenna in his parents backyard. His interest in science and technology took Armstrong to Columbia University, where he studied at the schools Hartley Laboratories and made a strong impression on several of his professors. He finished college in 1913 with a degree in electrical engineering. Regenerative Circuit The same year he graduated, Armstrong invented the regenerative or feedback circuit. Regeneration amplification worked by feeding a received radio signal through a radio tube 20,000 times per second, increasing the power of the received radio signal and allowing radio broadcasts to have a greater range. In 1914, Armstrong was awarded a patent for this invention. His success, however, was short-lived; the following year another inventor, Lee de Forest, filed several applications for competing patents. De Forest believed that he had developed the regenerative circuit first, as did several other inventors who became involved in the legal dispute that lasted many years. Although an initial case was resolved in Armstrongs favor, a later decision ruled that De Forest was the true inventor of the regenerative circuit. This was Armstrongs first experience with the legal system that would later cause him so much turmoil. FM Radio Armstrong is most commonly known for inventing frequency modulation, or FM radio, in 1933. FM improved the audio signal of radio by controlling the static caused by electrical equipment and the earths atmosphere. Prior to this, amplitude modulation (AM) radio had been extremely susceptible to such interference, which was what prompted Armstrong to investigate the problem in the first place. He conducted his experiments in the basement of Columbia Universitys Philosophy Hall. In 1933, Armstrong received U.S. patent 1,342,885 for a Method of Receiving High-Frequency Oscillations Radio for his FM technology. Again, Armstrong was not the only one experimenting with such technology. Scientists at the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) were also testing frequency modulation techniques to improve radio transmissions. In 1934, Armstrong presented his latest finding to a group of RCA officials; he later demonstrated the power of the technology using an antenna at the top of the Empire State Building. RCA, however, decided not to invest in the technology and instead focused on television broadcasting. Armstrong had not lost faith in his discovery, though. He continued to refine and promote FM radio technology, first by partnering with smaller companies such as General Electric and then by presenting the technology to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Unlike the RCA officials, those at the FCC presentation were impressed by Armstrongs demonstration; when he played them a jazz recording over FM radio, they were struck by the clarity of the sound. Improvements to FM technology over the 1930s made it more and more competitive with existing technologies. In 1940, the FCC decided to create a commercial FM service, which launched the following year with 40 channels. However, the outbreak of World War II limited the resources that could be put toward new radio infrastructure. Conflicts with RCA—which was still using AM transmissions—also prevented FM radio from taking off. It was not until after the war that the technology began to win popular support. In 1940, RCA, seeing that it was losing the technological race, tried to license Armstrongs patents, but he refused the offer. The company then developed its own FM system. Armstrong accused RCA of patent infringement and began litigation against the company, hoping to win damages for lost royalties. Death Armstrongs inventions made him a rich man, and he held 42 patents in his lifetime. However, he also found himself embroiled in protracted legal disputes with RCA, which viewed FM radio as a threat to its AM radio business. Much of Armstrongs time, as a consequence of the litigation, was devoted to legal matters rather than work on new inventions. Struggling with personal and financial problems, Armstrong committed suicide in 1954 by jumping to his death from his New York City apartment. He was buried in Merrimac, Massachusetts. Legacy In addition to frequency modulation, Armstrong is also known for developing a number of other key innovations. Every radio or television set today makes use of one or more of his inventions. Armstrong even invented the superheterodyne tuner that allowed radios to tune into different radio stations. During the 1960s, NASA used FM transmissions to communicate with its astronauts while they were in space. Today, FM technology is still used throughout the world for most forms of audio broadcasting. Sources Sterling, Christopher H., and Michael C. Keith.  Sounds of Change: a History of FM Broadcasting in America. University of North Carolina Press, 2008.Richter, William A.  Radio: a Complete Guide to the Industry. Lang, 2006.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Islam And Islam Islam, Terrorism, And War Essay

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Heineken free essay sample

When people are talking about those football matches, Heineken’s image will come up coincidentally, undoubtedly. The potential impact of the marketing outcome of Heineken is to some extent, very huge and continuous. The way how Heineken sponsors the Champion League and how those marketing campaigns are taken place, as a result, are worthy dealing with. In the meanwhile, the Super League in China has witnessed its boom. Since Heineken does not sell very â€Å"well† in Chinese market, lacking of feasible marketing strategies is one of the key matters why its business doesn’t run smoothly. As a result, this report mainly focuses on Heineken’s marketing approach in UEFA Champion League by analyzing its â€Å"Sports Marketing† patterns, and to figure out possible solutions for Super League plus the Chinese Heineken market. The following parts will in succession describe Heineken Global Market and Chinese Heineken Market, discuss the    approach in details and give suggestions that how it can also be applied to help expand and strengthen Heineken’s business in Chinese market. Introduction It was in 1863, the year which Heineken was founded by Gerard Adrian Heineken in Amsterdam (Kriscenski, A. 012). Today, Heineken has already enjoyed its top position in market, being as one of the most popular beer brands in the world. Great success has been witnessed in Heineken historically, especially in European countries, according to Griffin amp; Weber (2006). However, Heineken is not only successful in Europe, but also made it in other parts of the world. (See figure 1 in Appendix). Its great success in Europe which is described as the base of beer industry, is partly counting on that European people like drinking. And the sports marketing strategies of Heineken in Champion League are mainly classified as two strategic domains, stated by Fullerton and Merz (2008), theme-based and alignment-based. Apart from that, Heineken launched its app related to Champion League to promote the sales as well as to manage their relationship with the target audiences. But, expanding outside of the Europe, Heineken seems not to share a profitable market in Eastern Asia, to name the typical one, China. According to Zhou(2012), one major problem has been found lying in the promotion patterns of Heineken in Chinese market, along with three other key findings. This report mainly aims at analyzing Heineken’s marketing patterns in Europe with UEFA Champion League, by creating better understanding of the campaigns, a possible solution to the underperformed China Heineken market will be proposed. The following report is classified into five parts, including part 1, an overview of the Heineken market globally and in Europe, part 2, an analysis of Heineken Chinese market with major problems found out, after that, in part 3 Heineken’s marketing cooperation with UEFA Champion league will be described in details, followed by professional analysis in part 4. Finally, recommendations will be addressed to provide feasible approach for China Heineken marketers. After these five parts mentioned before, a comprehensive conclusion will be summarizing the whole report. The elaborate analyses of Heineken’s sports marketing strategies weigh a most, while the suggestions and recommendations are written less detailed. 1. Global overview of Heineken 1. 1 Brief introduction Heineken is one of the most popular beer brands in the world. It was founded by Gerard Adrian Heineken in Amsterdam in 1863. And it merged its biggest competitor—Amstel in 1968. Nowadays, according to Li Bing (2011), the beer of Heineken was sold like hot cakes in 170 countries all over the world. 1. 2 Heineken’s success in Europe Heineken’s product and operating business model is quite successful in the world, especially in Europe. The major base of beer industry is in Europe, which takes 40% of the global beer production. As the greatest brewery group in Europe, Heineken’s European production quota summed up to 73%, its production amount increased by 39% in the past decade. There are some countries make great contributions to Heineken’s success in European market: . 2. 1 Netherlands Heineken owns 52% of the market quota in Netherlands, and it makes Heineken became the most powerful market leader since the percentage is much higher than its competitors: Grolsch (15% market quota) and Verenigde (15% market quota). Although Heineken’s market share had decreased from 45% in 1980 to 30% in 1991, the downturn was stopped by lau nching its innovative product packaging. Meanwhile, the client service strategy improved its market share in restaurant and cafe. Heineken successfully protected its dominant market position. 1. 2. 2 Spain Heineken enter in Spanish (the third largest beer consumption country in the European Union) market in 1960s, which is later than its entering of other European countries. In order to make succeed in Spanish operating activities, Heineken purchased 37% shares of El Aguilia (a local beer company) at that time. Now, Heineken already holds 71% shares of El Aguilia. Heineken decided to reorganize the production model of El Aguilia, which was always marred by its outdated technology and poor brand image. Heineken adjusted the market positioning of Aguilia beer to standard position and promoted Heineken beer in top market. Finally, Heineken takes a great proportion of Spain high-class beer market. 1. 2. 3 Britain In UK, the production of Amstel beer was started in 1997. Although the British market congested, Heineken held an outstanding growing speed. The sales volume of Heineken Export processed beer exceeded the total sales volume of top beer market in Britain. At the same time, Heineken Filtered draft beer maintained a stable market quota though facing competitors’ large-scale sales promotion. Since Britain is the second largest beer consumption country in Europe, Heineken made great efforts on it. The consumption model in UK is different from other European countries, more than 80% beer are consumed in bars, which always have direct connection with brewery. So Heineken built up connection with Whitbread brewer and let them brew low-alcohol beer to cater for British’s preference. This kind of Heineken low-alcohol is well-received in Britain and also improved Heineken’s brand awareness in UK. 1. 2. 4 Germany From the perspective of consumption, Germany is the largest beer market in the world. However, Heineken just entered in Germany in 1993. It is because Germany has a Purity Law, which strictly pointed out that the beer only can be made  by using malt,  oats,  water  and  yeast. In addition, Heineken’s development potential was limited by customers’ loyalty towards German local brewery. Therefore, Heineken decided to sale the beer through distribution channels, such as high-class restaurant and cafe. At present, there are more than 2,000 bars and restaurants provide Heineken beer in Germany. 1. 2. 5 Other countries in Europe Heineken has merged many local beer companies in Europe to maintain the eading position in brewery market. For instance, Heineken merged Calanda and Halddengut beer companies in Switzerland. These two local brands have highly improved customer loyalty and profit for Heineken in Switzerland. The brand awareness is also improved by sponsoring big sports events, such as UEFA Champions League. Due to the acceptance and recognition of beer in Eastern European customers, Heineken s till has huge potential development in Eastern Europe. It always takes the Top 3 sales volume in most of the European countries. 1. Heineken’s success in the world Heineken is not only successful in Europe, but also made success in other parts of the world. Its total profit is increasing steadily year by year. (See Appendix Figure 1: Bar chart of Heineken’s income and profit from 2009 to 2012) Heineken has good performance in North America, although there is the hometown of its competitors—Miller and Budweiser. Heineken owns many sub-brands, such as Amstel, and cooperative companies around the world. Heineken is moving forward to improve the sales performance in Central and South America. Its operation is still expanding in African countries, such as Angola and Nigeria. Besides, the sales volume in the Asian-Pacific region is growing by 10% per year, of which China takes half of the consumption volume. 1. 3 Marketing strategy of Heineken in the world The main reason that Heineken succeeded in the world market, particularly in European market, is that they use STP (Segmenting, Targeting and Positioning) strategy to strengthen and expand the market. It caters to each target country’s customers by combining its core brand (Heineken, Amstel, Murphy’s and Buckler’s) with those local companies. That is, building up strategic brand or regional brand to win customers’ loyalty and preference of the brand. The general methods that Heineken adopts are: * Adopt a domestic â€Å"standardized brand† which aims to the main primary consumption market, For instance, using the â€Å"Dreher† brand in Italy and using â€Å"Tiger† brand in Singapore. * Apply a classic brand to occupy the middle-class market. It might be a local brand, such as â€Å"Aguila† in Spain or â€Å"Amstel† brand. * Use Heineken in the top high-class market. The beer could be made locally or exported to the target countries. The brand image and quality are carefully controlled by the headquarters in Amsterdam. (See Appendix Figure2: Branding for different market level) The Heineken Company also realized that the expectation and taste are clearly different in diverse area. Therefore, the head office gives high autonomous rights to the subsidiaries. This strategy easily makes Heineken’s products well-received and popular in each different local market. With the goal-oriented operation and the guidance of clever marketing strategy, Heineken is moving forward to make great development in the future. . Overview of Heineken in China 2. 1 Brief introduction (See Appendix Figure 3: Beer volume share by market: 2010) As the biggest beer market, China accounts for 25 percent of the world’s beer volume. In the meantime, the beer market has continuously growing in China since 1995. According to Tan (2011), the regional director of Heineken-Asian Pacific Brewery, international premium beer become more a nd more attractive of Chinese consumers, the segment of premium beer consumption has increased by almost 25 times since 1995. The tremendous commercial opportunity attracts lots of breweries overseas who want to dominate in China’s beer market, including Heineken. Furong(2009) introduced that Shanghai Asia Pacific Brewery Co. , Ltd controlling the share of Shanghai MILA brewery was the symbol of Heineken entered in Chinese market in 1998. MILA brewery produces and sells both Tiger and Heineken. Heineken focus on the high-end market while Tiger focus on the middle market. In 1997, Heineken took control on Hainan brewery. So far, Heineken’s strategy in China formed basically as centered on Hainan and Shanghai. Heineken promote their product largely in western restaurant and night entertainment place. In the same time, the company set a premium portfolio targeting varying price points and consumer tastes. According to Tan (2011), Heineken is treated as super premium, Tiger is affordable premium. The Anchor is their mainstream, and HAINAN beer as well as AOKE is viewed as discount product. They also provide dark beer—the MURPHYS, and cider—the STRONGBOW. Those different kinds of beers increase the variety of tastes available to Chinese consumer, also target different groups based on their income level and different consumption habit. . 2 Sales strategy Under the tense competition in Chinese beer marketing, Heineken has developed a series of strategies specific to Chinese consumer: Firstly, all the beers are imported with original packaging. According to Tan (2011), the company thought consumers in China have sense of original packaging product identity, especially on premium pr oduct. Secondly, Qiang (2006) claimed in the book that the package of Heineken is different from other beer in Chinese market. The unique package is good for consumer to recognize the brand. Thirdly, Heineken has segmented China’s market. It focuses on the market in southern China, because people in Pearl River delta have relatively higher income level, lots of rich people here can afford premium beer, so they became target consumers of Heineken. 2. 3 Promotion Heineken is always spending a large sum of money on marketing. In 1999, according to Qiang (2006), it spent around 14 percent of their gross income on marketing. Heineken is well known as the sponsor of UDFA Champions League, but it also hosted tennis competition in Shanghai. Tennis is always seen as noble sport in China, targeting on high income level people makes Heineken always focus on this kind of â€Å"rich people† activities. The competition has attracted lots of attention. People who follow these activities started to get involved in it. Besides, Heineken see young adult as huge potential customer group, so they also hosted some music festivals to draw attention from young people. They invited band and singers from both China and other countries like America, Australia. Some newspaper and website reported that the music festival has held successfully. Those fans that came to the concert all had great time according to the report, not only because of the music, but also the atmosphere that Heineken created. After the festival, the brand deeply rooted in the hearts of those young fans. 2. 4 The frustration Despite of the well performance in European and American market, Heineken is not always doing well in China. It lost around 160 million dollars every year before 2006. According to Furong(2009), a huge competitor of Heineken, the American brand Budweiser, exceeded Heineken, took up over 50 percent of premium beer market share in China. There is several reasons lead to this consequence: First of all, all the beers are imported directly from Holland. This strategy works at the beginning. But the cost of importing beer with original packaging directly from Europe is excessive for the company. At the same time, Chinese consumer became more mature since the economy globalization, and they started to feel less novelty about foreign beer brand. Heineken’s competitor Budweiser has the indigenization strategy to reduce cost. Unlike Budweiser, Heineken had no plan for indigenization, so the cost is still too high, which directly cause negative profit. Secondly, even though Chinese beer market is huge, the consumption of premium beer segment is no more than 10 percent of the total market (see table 2). Most large beer brand are centered in coastal cities besides Heineken, result in even larger competition. Meanwhile, not all Chinese people can afford the relatively high beer price. Most of Chinese think the price of local beer are lower and more acceptable than Heineken. And the high cost of importing original package make the price even higher than other premium beer in China. Thirdly, regardless the brand image Heineken created, people are focus more on the taste of the beer now. They feel bitter is not what they want in their fizzy light-alcohol drinks. Chinese people prefer those beers which cater their taste, like the local brand—Tsingtao. Fourthly, Heineken has only few advertisements in mainland China. In selling season, all other beer companies like Tsingtao and Budweiser are doing lots of sales promotion. On contrast, Heineken stay the same strategy as before, without doing large amount of mass media advertisement or continually sales event. This condition result in brand name awareness of Heineken became lower than other beer brand. These reasons make Heineken hard to compete with Chinese local beer company or even other foreign one, furthermore, leads to its bad performance in China’s market. (See appendix Figure 4: China by segment: 2010(mhl)) 3. Heineken, the Sponsor of Champions League in last 19 years Every Year the biggest task for those staffs from Heineken is the sponsorship agreement for the UEFA Champions League. Successfully, they obtain the extension of sponsorship for the UEFA Super Cup in 2012 to 2015. What prompted Heineken to focus on about the Sponsorship? 3. 1 Introduction of UEFA First of all, here is the introduction of the UEFA Champions League. As the world’s most prestigious football tournament, Club’s cup is an annual continental blub football competition organized by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) since 1955 for those top football clubs in Europe. The most- watched UEFA Final to date, as well as the most watched sporting event worldwide in 2011, appealed 178. 7 million television viewers. And this is also the feast of sponsors. Like the FIFA World Cup and Olympic games, a group of corporations and famous brands sponsor the UEFA Champions League. The tournaments current main sponsors are: Ford Gazprom Heineken (excluding Spain, Turkey, France, Switzerland and Russia, where alcohol sponsorship is restricted. In Spain, France, and Switzerland the Heineken adboard is replaced by an Enjoy responsibly or open your world adboard and in Russia the Heineken adboard is replaced by a No To Racism adboard). MasterCard, Sony Computer Entertainment Europe, UniCredit, HTC These main sponsors were guaranteed to have the priority on television advertisements during games with the maximum exposure. What should the Heineken focused on is the real effect of this ads and exposure. . 2 The cooperation of Heineken and UEFA Heineken has successfully been a sponsor of the UEFA Champions League since 1994 with and continues their long-term association with this prestigious tournament. Actually, the sponsorship of Heineken has become a cornerstone of its marketing communication, tremendously promoting the brand image on a worldwide scale. Moreover, th e partnership with Champions league will continue to improve the perceived value of Heineken brand and expect to extend the leadership with the premium beer segment in the world. 3. 3 How Heineken works with this sponsorship With an increasing number of TV viewers watching live coverage of the UEFA Champions League year by year, which more than 140 million in 2011, this global sporting event has become synonymous with the Heineken brand because of the exposure promotion. When football fans drinks watch the game, they would like to fancy they have some cold Heineken in their fridge. When they do not have, they tend to buy a dozen for next game next week. On the other hand, they would like to get in a bar which is with the big logos of UEFA champions League and Heineken and then buy some Heineken directly. This association of beer and football is simple but proved to be effective. Also, Heineken emphasizes its strategy of bringing the UEFA Champions League closer to the soccer fans. Outside the Europe market, last 3 years, Heineken has taken its promotion team and ads of UEFA Champions League into Latin American and Asia. They gave fans a unique opportunity to see this famous sporting icon first-hand. In 2008, more than 350 fans participated the competition of â€Å"Heineken Star Final† and finally attended the UEFA Champions League Final in Moscow. And over 150 consumers watched the final match at a Grand Safari Location in South Africa, as  part of the Heineken Star Final competition. Moreover, a few lucky fans got an opportunity to watch the warm-up from the pitch-side before the game started, offered by the Heineken Back Stadium Pass. This activity seems to be simple and small scale. However, it makes an instant effect of their consumers. Everyone knows Heineken is the choices in the month of the UEFA Champions League in subconscious and all fans would like to try his or her luck. Especially the fans form Asia and Latin American market, it is expensive to buy both the match ticket and plane ticket to see a live game. But Heineken make this event to the fans closer. 3. 4 Brief Analysis about Success in Sport Marketing 3. 4. 1 Target Market â€Å"The UEFA Champions League is one of the worlds premier sporting competitions with unrivalled international reach and professional standards. This makes it a perfect match for Heineken, the worlds most international premium beer brand† said by Alexis Nasard, chief commercial officer at Heineken. The Coke companies can make promotion toward to those teenagers who play basketball. However, considering the limit of age, the Heineken surely had better to choose its target market as football fans. 3. 4. 2 Long term Beer Culture An exciting game with beer is kind of like a wonderful movie with popcorn. Maximizing the intrinsic value of beer and football is the key work of all beer companies. When people get out of work, what they need is a relax activity but also stimulate their vitality. Football match should be a good choice. And a football match with a cup of superior beer would be perfect! Football game is the most popular sport in the world, and Heineken catch this market as a first mover, since they know only a long term consumption culture can make Heineken sustainable. 3. 4. 3 Not only get in, but also get in well and sustainable The culture of beer can be formed by a strong promotion. However, beer is like cigarette, excessive consumption can cause enormous social problem. In this case, Heineken expertly makes its beer culture healthier and more positive. Embracing quality over quantity, Heineken, as a premium beer brand, seeks to build a responsible drinking culture when consumers enjoy football game. As known, the overuse of the alcohol often became the blasting fuse of those brawl fights of football fans. Therefore, according strategy was launched in 2008 and Enjoy Heineken Responsibly’ was developed. This initiative launch aims to raise awareness around responsible alcohol consumption among those football fans who are also the beer drinkers. The example of commitment to addressing this issue  was the decision to promote the ‘responsible drinking’ tagline on promotional boards at UEFA Champions League matches. It can sell a positive image of Heineken brand in a global scale, especially for those teenager fans. . 5 The Interaction of Heineken with Champions League The other factor makes the case of Heineken successful is the interaction of Heineken. Comparing to the other Beer brands, Heineken is activating its sponsorship of the UEFA Champions League soccer tournament through a brand new mobile application that enables the users to have a grand event withou t buying the live ticket. And our group is consciously focused on this new mode of market promotion, which may be crucial for the secondary rise in China market. In modern society, people cannot enjoy the football game simply because their job. The upsurge of the app in the cellphone makes people enjoy the game more convenient. And Heineken seize this marketing chance. (See Appendix Picture 1) All these apps are available on Facebook page of Heineken, also through Apple’s App store. The latest app lets users play live with every UEFA Champions League match when they are watching TV. Users can predict the outcome of the coming game in real – time to score points and create their league. Consumers are happy to see their names on the Heineken’s national leaderboards because they have a chance to win a prize on the global scale. This is a dramatically successful case of Heineken is embracing mobile world. At the base level, it’s another way for Heineken to reach customers who are passionate about soccer and the UEFA tournament, simple but efficient. 4. Professional Analysis about Heineken Case 4. 1 Sports Marketing Over the past decades, â€Å"Sports marketing† has expanded to a crowded, billion-dollar global industry. (DeVous, S. 1994) According to Gray amp; McEvoy (2005), â€Å"Sport Marketing† is the noun described as the activities of industrial and consumer product and service marketers who gradually increase the use of sport as a vehicle of promotion. Dating back to 1978, the genesis of this term has been attributed in the Advertising Age. â€Å"Marketing through sport; that is using sport as a promotional vehicle or sponsorship platform for companies that market consumer, and to a lesser extent, industrial products. † best characterized the series of events and activities, noted by Gray and McEvoy (2005), who have been working on a compilation recently for a literature of sports marketing.. However, though people started to be aware the use of sports events as a marketing promotion tool, the way they activities are carried out diversified dramatically. . 2 Strategic Domains In a written report published in 2008, it clarified that there exist four strategic domains in sports marketing campaigns, including the theme-based, product-based, alignment-based, and sports-based strategic domains. (Fullerton, S. amp; Merz, G. R. , 2008) By creating better understanding of those strategic domains, Heineken’s marketing activiti es in UEFA can be summarized into theme-based and alignment-based strategies. * Theme-Based * Alignment-Based 4. 3 Theme – Based Strategies According to Fullerton and Merz (2008), theme-based strategies are described as incorporating a sports theme with traditional marketing strategy into the marketing procedure for non-sport products. The use of copy platform related to sports or the advertisement of products in sports-connected media can both be chosen by the marketers. Either of these options should effectively come near the customers. A most important point of theme-based strategies is that, â€Å"the marketers efforts are not predicated upon an official elationship with any specific sports property in its effort to create the sports overlay for its marketing efforts†, they stated. ( The four domains of sports marketing: A conceptual framework, 2008) 4. 4 Alignment – Based Strategies Use the Olympic Games as an example. McDonald’s packaging and advertising officially feature its relationship with the Games, in order to increase its sales in fast food. Volvo uses its sponsorship of a high profile sailing event to strengthen the publics perception of the carmaker as one that exudes prestige while concurrently emphasizing safety and technology. While the strategic initiatives that augment the sponsorship are important, the foundation for the resultant strategy is the fact that the marketer, by virtue of its official sponsorship, is highly integrated within the sports environment. Thus, the task for these marketers of nonsports products is one of implementing strategic initiatives that allow them to capitalize upon their position within this realm of the sports marketing environment. Such initiatives are alternatively characterized as leveraging or activation. Examples abound, traditional sponsorship patterns are adopted frequently, to name a few, the Olympics’ and the World Cup of Soccer’s relationships with Coca-Cola are the most eye-catching cases. What’s more, other sponsors in Olympic, including Lenovo Computers, McDonalds, as well as John Hancock Life Insurance are also noteworthy. 4. 5 Applications in Recent Decades Firmly believing that they have scratched the sweet spot with UEFA sponsorship, Heineken not only stretches its business into football fields. Other than this, another big sports event U. S. Open Tennis Championships is with no exception, being sponsored continuously by Heineken. (Heineken plans largest marketing campaign in booming imported beer category. 1999) Furthermore, Heineken involves in other key marketing initiatives, including an expanded Hispanic market promotional program, new packaging, major musical events, figured out by Editors, B. (1999). 5. 1 China’s Prospective Can Heineken duplicate its success into Chinese market? As known, Chinese football seems to be a weakness when talking about this new world power. Corruption and unhealthy system make Chinese football ugly and lose the support in whole country. Chinese football, over the years, has rarely received  much coverage on a global scale. However, that is changing quickly. It’s gaining more and more attention of late, as teams such as Shanghai Shenhua  and Guangzhou Evergrande  have stretched  their financial muscle to the very limit – with some very big names from Europe and beyond deciding to join the CSL (Chinese Super League). In Season 2012 CSL, many clubs fighting for their AFC qualification and defending title. This is the most competitive season in the CSL history. Among these teams, Guangzhou Evergrande heavily invested in their â€Å"Arms race†, and this lead Super League into an unprecedented 100 million age. And a lot of clubs would like to imitate this success mode and invest hundred million for recruitment and buying those super stars. With more money, this upgraded Super League will develop more opportunity of its potential market. The operation of Guangzhou Evergrande with a big integrated marketing model is actually a useful exploration for CSL becoming the world-class professional league. Observing the operation of the Super League last season, the multiple operating points is a huge breakthrough of Chinas sports industry. This is especially noteworthy for those companies would like to exploit the Chinese market. China is bidding to be the new face of Asian football. The money is there, the quality of players are increasing and you know it’s got promise when a World Cup winning coach, in Marcelo Lippi,  moves into Guangzhou Evergrande. However, what is the most appealing point for those marketing departments of famous brands? It is the strong return of CCTV which greatly stimulated the investor to burn their money. Especially the real estate business acts as the main force for this round of CSL investors. All this signals make the Super League in China quite a potential target for Heineken. A market with 1. 3 billion people and urbanization has become a catalyst of the beer culture among young generation. It’s still expanding at a rapid rate. And it’s not going to stop, for anyone. 5. 2 Recommendation Can Heineken duplicate its success into Chinese market and have a second rise? Before answering this question, we need to analyze the problem Heineken mentioned in the second part. First, the original package is still not appealing to Chinese consumers; besides, the shipping cost is too high for Heineken to maintain high profit. However, the reason of high cost is actually lack of the economics of scale which can be solved by gain the approval of the brand value. Second, the high price limits Heineken to target the rich people. Facing the huge competition in premium beer market, it is still a problem for Heineken to stand out. However, our group considers that, with a bloomy football league in the new market, using the theme based and alignment based strategies, Heineken is going to offset the previous inefficient promotion problems in China. What Heineken should do is make a full use of the China’s Super league and draft the correct strategies. Here are our recommended strategies. First, we would like to focus talking about the right time of Theme – Based strategies. When we mentioned about the failure, the incomprehension of the brand value is the main problem Heineken face in China. And it is the very problem let us remind of the successful case of UEFA champions League. The sport theme with beer product is the direct way for this historic brand to build up its culture of quality life and theme of enjoying the game to the market. Facing a bloomy market of China’s football league, both the advertisement of products and the sports connected media can be the best solution for the market promotion. The better brand penetration of Heineken into this football event, the higher will be the acceptability. What should Heineken do if it requires this effect? On the one hand, the market department should design a typical circumjacent product, such as fashion Green Logo T shirt, which can link the football game with beer consumption. On the other hand, bring the best live coverage techniques from European into those sports channel. And above all, the adequate advertisement is of necessity in this part. With an acceptation of brand value, consumer would accept the high price of this brand more easily. After these theme work, when talking about Heineken, what those football fans will recall are a green powerful logo, a fashion brand and a vigorous lifestyle, but not only a beer brand. Second, the Alignment – based strategy is also an instantly effective solution for Heineken to get into China’s Super League. When seeing the UEFA champions League, we can recall the green logo of Heineken. Same effect will be seen in CSL. When fans talks about the Guangzhou Evergrande, the first association of the football club is not the super star but its powerful sponsor Evergrande, a famous real estate company. The CSL will rise abruptly and the exposure rate of this league will come back to this super nation in the near future. If Heineken and CSL can make an agreement in the next five years, it will become the milestone of Heineken brand. Just imagine the market of the most popular sport in the country with the largest population, it worth trying. Third, the cellphone application mode can be successful in China as well. According to Shan Phillips (2010), the number of Chinese mobile phone users has reached 755 million, which is more than the American. The increasing mobile users means the beer amp; football culture can be established via a brand new media. Unlike those European, Chinese elites are busy with their jobs, they would not spend much of time at football live coverage. Accordingly, the application of cellphone can act an important role among those football fans without a completed time for games. With an application developed by Heineken Group, fans will spend their time to interact with Heineken event holders and also other fans on this app. This will be the great culture building in China’s market. With these strategies, can this beer brand have a second rise in China market with its successful experience of UEFA Champions League? With the tool of an emergent CSL, can Heineken handle the unique features in Chinese market as mention in the second part? With the preparation above, definitely, our answer is YES! Conclusion From the case analysis and strategy model in our report, we can draw a conclusion that it is good for Heineken to apply its successful European marketing strategy to China. In this way, Heineken should make efforts in branding and mainly focus on the 4 aspects (indigenization, price, taste and advertisement), also were the things that made them performed not so well in Chinese beer market.

Monday, April 20, 2020

The Book The Lives Of A Cell Notes Of A Biology Watcher Was Very Well

The book The Lives of a Cell: Notes of a Biology Watcher was very well written by Lewis Thomas. This book covered a lot of insects such as ants, termites, bees, wasps, and moths which I liked because insect interest me. I was surprised to learn how strong the earth actually is, in contrast with the delicate flower that we are told it is. I learned that thousands of dollars are wasted every year on medical bill that we didn't even need to go see a doctor about. I also read, that if we ever do find alien life, it might not be the little green martian we have seen so much of, it might be a microbe, a strand of nucleic acid, or a molecule of enzyme. I found out that many animal give off odors called pheromones that carry information on all kinds of things like marking territory. I also learned that all animals make some kid of noise, it surprised me that termites beat their head on the ground to send messages and that birds actually sing for a reason. I was under the impression that we w ere the only being that had the ability to communicate, but this book told me that most animals communicate in some way or another. But what most interested me were the Iks, I had trouble believing that a group of humans could be so cruel to each other! How could anyone take food from an elderly person like the kids did in the Ik tribe, or go to the bathroom on someone else's door step. In conclusion this book was a very interesting and captured my attention in the first paragraph. I only listed some of the facts I thought were the most interesting. I would have written more facts down but I could never fit all the facts I wanted to write on one sheet of paper. In conclusion I felt that this was a very interesting book and I learned a lot from reading it (I read it twice).

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Desert Solitaire essays

Desert Solitaire essays A reluctant nature writer, Edward Abbey writes of his experiences of, and personal philosophical developments during, his time in southeastern Utahs canyonlands. Abbey doesnt like to consider himself a nature writer, yet he clearly exhibits great strengths as a preserver of nature through his writings. I have currently read the introductory material and first six chapters of his book Desert Solitaire. I was immediately drawn to his descriptions of the desert because of my own love for the outdoors, particularly the arid landscape and natural beauty of the desert. In the first six chapters he introduces the reader to his new home, a metal trailer residing miles away from any other people and anything civilized. His only companions, the rocks, plants, a few ravens, some resident mice, a snake (and its friend) that he befriended, and a few other more-or-less elusive animals. Abbey is clearly an educated outdoorsman, reciting the names of dozens of plants that comprise the fauna around his new home as well as the plants of other regions. He also lists off the names and classification of many of the geological resources of the area; he names rocks and minerals that the average, even fairly educated, person would not recognize. These rock and mineral descriptions drew me even deeper into his book due to my own interest in geology (although there were names that even I didnt recognize). There have been different aspects of Abbeys book that I have enjoyed for different reasons, and some that have detracted enjoyment. I feel his visual descriptions of the plants, animals and rock formations are incredible, while his sometimes drawn out tangents are sometimes distracting. I particularly enjoy his brief interactions with the wildlife. When he asks the dear to join him, or queries the snakes about their behavior, the animals only response is to walk, slither, or run the other dir...

Friday, February 28, 2020

Interpretation of Martin Luther King's Letter from Jail Essay

Interpretation of Martin Luther King's Letter from Jail - Essay Example The central ideas of the letter: love and justice, can be seen from the first lines of Martin Luther King’s letter. He tries to disapprove accusation of not being a Birmingham insider. Martin Luther King claims that he had an invitation to Birmingham and had managerial ties as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference’s president. In addition, he did not consider himself as Birmingham outsider because of the fact that everyone who live within the territorial boundaries of the United States of America could not be referred to as outsiders. This justifies the justice and love idea of Martin Luther King’s letter. Martin Luther King’s letter focuses on nonviolent resistant defense to racism; Martin Luther King argues in the letter that people have a moral responsibility to resist unjust laws. This shows the commitment of Martin Luther King to advocate love and justice to the people of America. The letter though experienced an early setback; it enjoyed a bro ad publication and was considered the major text for the civil rights movement in the United States in the early 1960s. Martin Luther King responded through his letter to the call for unity and acted as a declaration to fight racial inequality. This again supports the thesis of this paper: the significance of love and justice in using appeals to logic, emotion and ethics. The "Letter from Birmingham Jail" by Martin Luther King literary puts into terms his life thesis statement. Martin Luther King illustrated meticulously his reasoning through the use of appeals to emotion, logic, and ethics. A logical appeal is that which utilizes facts, reason and documented evidence to drive a point. Martin Luther King makes in his letter a logical appeal where he responds to being referred to as an extremist. King does this by asserting that majority of historical figures that are today considered heroes were perceived as extremist in their time. Martin Luther King mentions people like Thomas Jef ferson, Apostle Paul, Jesus Christ and Abraham Lincoln (549). In this particular aspect, King uses facts and reason to put across a logical appeal to the reader: if he is considered an extremist because of campaigning for freedom, then all the other people are extremists as well. Martin Luther King cites an illustration of this by pointing out the manner in which the police at Birmingham mistreated the protesters (522). Although he does not in particular cite a source, the event was publicized widely. Martin Luther King uses evidence to invalidate the accusations by the clergymen. He also uses firsthand accounts in illustrating his points. King talks about the way he expected the white religious leaders to provide aid, but found opposition and reluctance instead (550). Martin Luther King states his arguments through providing firsthand account of his real experience. This however relies on the perception of the writer in order to be useful. Credibility is needed for this reason. In order to obtain credibility, explanations as to why things are done in a particular way must be given. Martin Luther King begins his letter by informing readers that he is writing the letter (540-541). Informing readers the reason for particular writings gives the readers insight to the real meaning of

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Adam Smith's Theory Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Adam Smith's Theory - Research Paper Example Born in 1723 and died in 1790, Smith left a legacy in his model Wealth of Nations that has been an influential contribution in economics. In brief, the theory identifies the basic principles that nation acquire wealth and function effectively when individuals use capital and proficiency at their own diplomacy. His model revealed the nature of country’s prosperity as many learn the principles of economics. Up-to-date, his arguments are used and cited in debates as many learn from his great insights. Nevertheless, some people disagree with his assumption as many view him as an activist of callous individualism. Regardless of the way he is viewed, his theory is paramount in the economics field. How the economy does stem from his theory and importantly economists assume that the theory is accurate in how the world’s economy operates. At this point, this paper seeks to analyze the theory and lay a discussion of its pros and cons. Wealth of Nations In his theory wealth of nat ion, Smith noted that wages and prices might reach optimal level when freedom of using capital and skills as per wish is imposed (Smith, In Cannan & Lerner, 1937). He taught by examples of new products, which he argued that, when invented prices are usually high until when others discover the profit potential, and join the field then prices go down. Indeed this can be outlined in today’s electronics where such scenarios take place. ... According to O'Rourke and Smith (2007), the theory explored that there cannot be consumption if there is no production. To explain further, Smith’s theory affirmed cars do not just exist there is a process through which they are put together in production to manufacture cars. Similarly, capitalism works in this way in the sense that when a car is manufactured, those in need of a car search for it in the car factory and purchase as per their choice of the car. In the 21st Century, people do not just walk in the car factory and request to purchase the car but they are purchased by a dealership and later sold to clients. The main point that Smith wanted to highlight is that, one can break capitalism in two parts consumption and production. In this case, there cannot be consumption without production and vice versa. Applicability This law is applicable in today’s society in that one cannot purchase products at the market without being manufactured and supplied by a differen t party. Still, one cannot eat without preparing or acquiring food and cannot be in a house that has not been constructed. From his theory, Smith assumed that the market force ensured there is right invention of goods and services. The theorist based his idea on the aspect of free market economy whereby consumers have the free will to choose what they need. Smith perceived capitalism as the main aspect, which drives, and motivate the economy. He believed that it motivates companies and individuals to gain and accumulate profits. To support his argument, Smith developed two theories through a research on production in Europe during industrial revolution. The two theories are moral sentiments and wealth of nations, which

Friday, January 31, 2020

Porter’s 5 Forces Essay Example for Free

Porter’s 5 Forces Essay The fast food industry is one which affects many lives in Canada. The following is a Porter’s 5 Force’s analysis that will determine how attractive this industry is as a whole. To determine the threat of new entrants, one must first consider the barriers to entry. Firstly, the start-up costs associated with the fast food industry are relatively minute. This acts as a low barrier to entry. In this industry, the top four companies account for 37.4% of the total revenue. Although that is not a percentage of mind-changing significance, a business entering this industry must be able to uniquely establish itself with product differentiation. That being said, it is believed that the industry concentration is relatively low. Accordingly, high barriers to entry arise from government regulations, specifically including health and food service as well as occupational health and safety issues, along with a high amounts of competition within the fast food industry. Overall, the barriers to entry can be determined as low resulting in a high threat of new entrants. Next is establishing the power of the buyer. The fast food industry has been impacted by the decreasing demand for fried food and subsequently the increase for healthy options. This change in consumer trends along with a high variety of fast food places to choose from assume high power of the buyer. Secondly, it has been determined that the products sold in the fast food industry are luxury goods goods that are purchased more-so when  economic times are â€Å"good†. In turn, when economic times are â€Å"rough,† consumers will choose to eat less fast food and more home cooking. Overall, the power of the buyer within the fast food industry is high. Thirdly, the threat of substitutes must be determined. Substitutes for the fast food industry include grocery stores (i.e., eating home cooked meals), full-service restaurants (both single and multiple location based businesses), catering companies, food trucks, bars and night clubs. Due to the fact that the fast food indus try consumes a large portion of the food market, it can be concluded that there is a medium threat of substitutes. Examining the bargaining power of suppliers, one can look at two different groups, (1) large companies and (2) small companies. Large companies within the fast food industry include dominant players such as McDonald’s, Subway and Yum! Brands. Due to the large size and demand of these companies, they are relatively dependent on those suppliers who can meet their needs. For these companies, the bargaining power of suppliers is high. However, all other smaller companies are faced with many different suppliers that can meet their demand needs. The smaller companies are faced with low bargaining power of suppliers. All in all, one finds the total bargaining power of suppliers to be at a medium level. Lastly comes the examination of industry rivalry. The three leading companies that take up 33.1% of the market share include McDonald’s, Subway and Yum! Brands. Furthermore, within the market, the total number of companies is forecast to increase on average 1.5% per year to 17,039 in 2019. Overall, the dominant players along with the size of the industry lead to high industry rivalry. Based on the previous analysis and using a scale of 0-10 (0 being very unattractive and 10 being very attractive), the following scores can be determined: Threat of New Entrants = 3, Power of the Buyer = 4, Threat of Substitutes = 6, Bargaining Power of Suppliers = 5 and Industry Rivalry = 3. With an average score of 4.2, it is determined that the fast food industry is of medium attractiveness.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Lawrence Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Development Essay -- Lawrence Kohl

Lawrence Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg laid the groundwork for the current debate within psychology on moral development. He proposed that children form ways of thinking through their experiences which include understandings of moral concepts such as justice, rights, equality and human welfare. Kohlberg followed the development of moral judgment beyond the ages. He determined that the process of attaining moral maturity took longer and was more gradual than other studies have shown. Kohlberg identified six stages of moral grouped into three major levels. Each level represented a fundamental shift in the social-moral perspective of the individual. At the first level, the preconventional level, a person's moral judgments are characterized by a individual perspective. Within this level, a Stage 1 they focused on avoiding breaking rules that are backed by punishment, obedience for its own sake and avoiding the physical consequences of an action to persons and property. At Stage 2 there is the early emergence of moral reciprocity. The Stage 2 focused on the value of an action. Reciprocity is of the form, "you scratch my back and I'll scratch yours." The Golden Rule becomes, "If someone hits you, you hit them back." At Stage 2 one follows the rules only when it is to someone's immediate interests. What is right is what's fair in the sense of an equal exchange, a deal, an agreement. At Stage 2 there is an understanding that everybody has his own ...

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Meaning of Life and Language

Written Assignment 1: Language related tasks Submit : __/__/_____ Length: Between 800 and 1000 words Aim: To develop your ability to look at language (structure, functional language and vocabulary) from the students’ point of view to enable you to prepare thoroughly for language lessons. You should make use of grammar reference books or course books and a monolingual dictionary. Bullet points may be used in this assignment. TASK: From the box below, select one item from each pair to analyse, and: a) Analyse meaning: Give a clear definition (appropriate for level) of what the item means; focus only on the meaning used in the statement. ) Analyse form and label the parts (using terminology): * Structure – statement/negative/question forms (if applicable); make sure it’s clear which words can be substituted and which are â€Å"set in stone†. * Vocabulary – label the item e. g. adjective, phrasal verb etc; irregular past forms, common collocations, etc. * Functional Language – show which parts are â€Å"set in stone† and which parts can be changed e. g.? Would you mind + verb+ing (present participle) + object? c) Highlight key pronunciation features. Use phonemic script where useful. * word or sentence stress, * weak forms, intonation, * links between sounds, contractions, lost sounds, etc. d) Anticipate problems – think about what problems students might have with the features you listed above. a) What aspects of the meaning might be difficult for students to grasp? Are there other words/structure that express something similar? Does the structure exist in students L1? b) What form-related mistakes might students make when trying to use the item? c) What problems might sts have with particular sounds, word stress or other pronunciation issues? Use your common sense as well as reference sources. ) Imagine your students are not familiar with each language item. Describe a context that would help convey its mean ing so that you could elicit the target statement. f) State how you would check students’ understanding of the language item. Write the concept questions you would ask and provide the answers. If a timeline is appropriate, you should also include this. You can include other ways of checking too, if you wish. g) State which reference book(s) or other source(s) you used to obtain the above information. ————————————————- Choose ONE example from each pair.The target language has been underlined. ————————————————- 1. ————————————————- I’m meeting Dave for lunch on Sunday. (elementary) 2. ———————à ¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€- If I get the job, I’ll need a new car. (elementary) ————————————————- ——————————————————————————————————– 3. ————————————————- He shouldn’t have insulted the policeman (upper-intermediate) 4. ————————————————-She might have left already. (upper-intermediate) ————————â€⠀Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€- ——————————————————————————————————– 5. ————————————————- He takes after his mother. (pre-intermediate) 6. ————————————————- She is very sensitive to criticism. (pre-intermediate) ————————————————- ——————————————————— Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€œ 7. ————————————————-How about watching a movie on Friday? (elementary) 8. ————————————————- Do you mind if I open the window? (elementary) ————————————————- ——————————————————————————————————– 9. ————————————â €”———- I would like to try the tropical fruit/fruits on the island. 10. ————————————————- You want teens to have committed academic lives? Get real! WORKED EXAMPLE: VOCABULARY Target statement: John’s borrowed $200 from Holly. Intermediate) Analysis| d) Anticipated Problems| a) Meaningto receive and use something that belongs to someone else, and promise to give it back to them later| * Sts use lend instead of borrow| b) Form * to borrow (transitive verb – regular) * borrowed – past simple/past participle * To borrow + something (object) + from (preposition) + somebody/something| * Sts use incorrect preposition i. e. to borrow sthg to so. | c) Pronunciation * stress on 1st syllable borrow /’b? r / * silent â€Å"w† at end * past simple & particle â€Å"ed† is pronounced /d/ * preposition â€Å"from† is weak e. g. /fr? /| * sts pronounce silent w at end * incorrect pron of ed /id/ * sts stress 2nd syllable | e) Providing a context/conveying meaning Tell story about my friend John who is always short of money but who always wants the latest technical objects e. g. mobile, computer, etc. John saw this new DVD recordable player but didn’t have the money so he asked if Holly, his girlfriend, would give him $200. He promised to pay Holly back at the end of the month when he got paid. She said OK so .. (write on whiteboard) John †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. $200 †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Holly. f) Checking understanding Did Holly give John $200? Yes What for? To buy a new DVD recorder.Is the money a present from Holly? No Will she get her money back? Yes, hopefully g) References â€Å"Macmillan English Dictionary†, Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2003 â€Å"Practical English Usage†, Michael Swan (OUP, 1980) WORKED EXAMPLE: STRUCTURE Target statement: I used to do exercise regularly. ( intermediate) Analysis| d) Anticpated problems| a) MeaningTo say what was true or what happened regularly in the past, especially when you want to emphasize that this is not true or does not happen now. | * Sts might think it refers to present habits, perhaps due to confusion with ‘be + used to + verb+ing’. * Sts may use it for single past events e. . I used to go to the cinema yesterday. * Possible confusion with the lexical verb ‘use’. | b) Form * statement: subj. + used to + verb (bare infinitive)+†¦ * negative: subj. + didn’t use to + verb (bare infinitive)+†¦ * question: Did (auxiliary verb) + subj. + use to + verb (bare infinitive) +†¦| * Sts may use past form of second verb, (I used to did exercise †¦) * Sts may forget â€Å"to† (I used do †¦) * Ss may use â€Å"used† instead of â€Å"use† in negative and question forms. (I did/didn’t used to .. )| c) Pronunciation * stress would normally fa ll on used and 2nd verb i. e. I used to do exercise regularly * weak form of ‘to† sed: /t? / * connected speech: used to /’just? /| * Ss might say /ju:zd tu:/ i. e. stress /d/ in â€Å"used† Ss might not use weak form of â€Å"to† /tu:/ instead of /t? /| e) Providing a context/conveying meaning Tell an anecdote about myself as a 16 year-old. I went running every morning and often went to the gym in the evening (use pictures/mime, if necessary). Then I stopped running and stopped going to the gym when I was about 25. I’m now 30 and I don’t do much exercise at all. So, â€Å"I †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ (try to elicit the target phrase) †¦ used to do exercise regularly. † f) Checking Understanding: Did I exercise in the past?Yes Did I do it once, or often? Often Do I exercise now? No Can you think of something you used to do but don’t do now? g) Reference: â€Å"Practical English Usage†, Michael Swan (OUP, 1980) â€Å"Macmi llan English Dictionary†, Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2003 WORKED EXAMPLE: FUNCTIONAL LANGUAGE Target statement: Would you mind getting me a cheese sandwich? (intermediate) Analysis| d) Anticipated Problems| a) Meaning * to request politely that someone do something for you. * Often used with slightly bigger requests or more distance in relationship between the speakers. * Answer: Yes = no and no = yes. * Sts might not realise there are other less complex ways to ask for things politely * Sts get the answer yes/no wrong * This structure suggests a bigger request or a less personal relationship between speakers. | b) Form * Would you mind + verb+ing (present participle) + object? * Short answer: Yes/No, subj. + would/wouldn’t| * Sts use infinitive instead of present participle e. g. Would you mind to get me †¦? * Sts use â€Å"Do† instead of â€Å"would† * Use Yes/No, I mind/don’t mind as the short answer| c) Pronunciation * Rising intonation * St ress on â€Å"mind† and â€Å"getting† * Weak form of would and you / w? / /j? / * Linking of would + you + mind /w? dj? ’ma? n/| * Sts say it forcefully or with flat intonation and it could sound impolite * Sts give equal stress to would+you+mind and don’t link| e) Providing a context/conveying meaning Jane has just started working for a new company. One of her new colleagues is going out to the local supermarket and asks her if she wants her to get her something for lunch. Jane is really hungry and ask her to get her a sandwich. What does she say? (Try to elicit â€Å"Would you mind getting me a cheese sandwich? †) f) Checking Understanding: Does Jane want a cheese sandwich?Yes Is she asking or demanding her colleague to get her a sandwich? Asking Is she polite? Yes Do you know another way to ask her to get a sandwich? Can/Could/Would you get me a †¦.? g) Reference: â€Å"Practical English Usage†, Michael Swan (OUP, 1980) â€Å"Macmi llan English Dictionary†, Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2003 Written Assignment 1: Language related tasks Length: Between 800 and 1000 words ————————————————- Name:Date: ————————————————- Please submit this cover sheet with your assignment | Pass(first draft)| Pass(second draft)| Fail|Assignment 1: Language related tasks| | | | If necessary, please resubmit by:See reverse side for resubmission details. | ————————————————- Assignment criteria ————————————————- For this assignment, candidates can demonstrate their learning by: a. —†”——————————————- Analysing language correctly for teaching purposes. b. ————————————————- Correctly using terminology relating to form, meaning and phonology when analysing language. c. ————————————————-Accessing reference materials and referencing information they have learned about language to an appropriate source. d. ————————————————- Using written language that is clear, accurate and appropriate to the task. ————————————————- Reference: CEL TA Syllabus and Assessment Guidelines What are we looking for? An assignment that shows an ability to:| You| Overall| a. Clarify the meaning of language appropriate for level. | | | b. Clarify the form of language, using appropriate terminology. | | | c. Clarify key pronunciation features of language. | | d. Identify potential problems with meaning, form and pronunciation. | | | e. Provide a clear and appropriate context to help convey the meaning. | | | f. Check the students’ understanding of the target language appropriately. | | | g. Use reference books to analyse language and acknowledge these sources. | | | Also the assignment †¦| | Is complete, i. e. answers all sections, and adheres to the word limit. | | Uses language which is clear and coherent, and essentially free of mistakes in spelling, punctuation and grammar. | | Is presented clearly. | | Overall Comments:| ————————————â₠¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€ 1st Tutor’s signature:Date: ————————————————- 2nd Tutor’s signature:Date: ————————————————- Circle: This is my 1st submission. This is my 2nd submission. Written Assignment 2: Focus on the learner Submit: __/__/____ Length: Between 800 and 1000 words Aim: To develop your ability to assess the needs of a group of learners, and to act on this information by finding appropriate material for language support. Task: Prepare a case study of your TP group. Your report should include (250-300 words): . Information about the students’ backgrounds (approximate ages, nationalities, reasons for learning English, previous English learning experience) b. The students’ learning styles (what they like/dislike in lessons, t he things they find easy/difficult, how they like to learn) c. What YOU have noticed in their classroom behaviour (degree of participation, quantity or output in different stages of the lesson, fluency/accuracy of output, similarity of level amongst the group) ————————————————- Points a, b and c of the assignment should take the form of a REPORT.You should use a formal style of language. Make use of headings and sub-headings, paragraphs, linking words, etc to organise your work. d. A paragraph (150-200) words summarising your TP students’ main strengths in grammatical and phonological areas as well as in receptive skills. e. Identify 2 areas of weakness in your students’ grammar, 1 in pronunciation and 1 in vocabulary, providing at least one example to support your observation. State why you think the students made this error and what the correct form should be. (250–300 words) Point e can be put into boxes and bullet points can be used.Remember to include specific examples. Grammatical Weaknesses| Incorrect word order * I work also on Saturdays (I also work) * I went often home (home by bus)Reason: In German, the verb is usually the second idea in the sentence and students have transferred this rule to English. | f. Select 2 specific language focused activities (100-200 words) from published materials (not your course book) to focus on areas of weakness you identified: * 1 exercise/task focusing on grammatical areas of weakness AND * 1 exercise/task on phonological areas of weakness OR 1 exercise/task on the lexical weakness. For EACH activity: ) state the aim of the activity (i. e. by the end of this task, students should be better able to accurately use/discriminate between †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ ) 2) state briefly why you think the activity would be suitable for your students. (Remember to link this to your weaknesses and your profil e of the students. ) 3) State where it comes from (Book, Author, Pg no. , Exercise no. ) and attach a referenced a copy of the activity Collecting your data: You will want to interview them so that you can note any good or weaker examples of language used. You might want to tape the interview so that you can identify language later.You could also get students to write something for you spontaneously e. g. a letter to a friend inviting them to spend the summer with them. You could also give them a reading and listening to do. You can further make use of the time before lessons start or during the breaks to chat to your students and find out the information you need. You should continue to make notes during TP classes. It is not necessary for you to personally interview all members of the class; you can interview 2 or 3 students and then share your findings with the other teachers in your TP group.You can also make generalisations on the basis of 2 or 3 students. Suggesting specific l anguage focused activities: There are an abundance of activities in different books and on the publisher’s websites too. Attach photocopies of the relevant exercises that you would recommend. Don’t forget to reference your material, i. e. book name, level (if applicable), author, publisher, and page number, or website name and date accessed on. ————————————————- The students as people and as language learners. ————————————————-These questions could be asked in an interview or informal chat 1. ————————————————- How long has s/he been learning English? 2. —————————— Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€- Does s/he like learning English? 3. ————————————————- What is her/his mother tongue? Is English second/third language? 4. ————————————————- Does s/he have any experience of learning another language? 5. ————————————————- Does s/he have any specific aims in learning English? (e. g. isit to UK/need it for work) 6. ————————————————- What does the learner do for a living? 7. ————————————————- Is this their first English learning experience? Have they learnt English before? Where? How long? 8. ————————————————- In their previous learning experience, what kinds of methods were used? 9. ————————————————- What did they enjoy/not like about their previous learning? 10. ————————————————- What do they like doing in class? 11. ———————————————— Which areas of their English do they feel they need work on? 12. ————————————————- What d o they find easy/difficult to do in class? ————————————————- ————————————————- These questions can be focussed on during TP 1. ————————————————- What kinds of activities do they seem to prefer? 2. ————————————————- Are there any activities they seem to dislike? 3. ————————————————-How do they react to working with others in class? 4. ————————————†”———- Do they contribute to pair/group work? 5. ————————————————- Who are the stronger/weaker members of the group? 6. ————————————————- Note down examples of good language used. 7. ————————————————- Which topics do they seem to enjoy/not like talking about? 8. ————————————————- Note down any pronunciation/grammatical/lexical errors the students make? e. g. sounds, stress, intonation, verb tenses, articles, word order, etc) so that you can give examples. 9. ———————— ————————- Observe the students listening and reading abilities. Are they better at gist or specific reading/listening? Is it necessary to pre-teach vocabulary? Do they worry about words they don’t know? Do you have to grade your language when you talk to them? Do you have to paraphrase if they don’t understand? * In the assignment, don’t mention sts’ names. Say e. g. Some are interested in†¦ Three students want to learn English†¦The main reason for learning English is†¦ Written Assignment 2: Focus on the learner Submit: __/__/____ Length: Between 800 and 1000 words ————————————————- Name:Date: Please submit this cover sheet with your assignment | Pass(first draft)| Pass(second draft)| Fail| Assignment 2Focus on the learner| | | | If necessary, please resubmit by:| —â⠂¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€- Assignment Criteria ————————————————- For this assignment, candidates can demonstrate their learning by: ————————————————- ) Showing awareness of how learners’ backgrounds, previous learning experience and learning styles affect learning. ————————————————- b) Identifying the learners’ language/skills needs. ————————————————- c) Correctly using terminology relating to the description of language systems and langua ge skills ————————————————- d) Selecting appropriate material and/or resources to aid the learners’ language development. ————————————————- e) Providing a rationale for using specific activities with learners. ———————————————— f) Finding, selecting and referencing information from one or more sources ————————————————- g) Using written language that is clear, accurate and appropriate to task. ————————————————- Reference: CELTA Syllabus and Assessment Guidelines What are we looking for? An assignment that†¦| You| Tutor’s Comments| Provides information on the learners’ ages, nationalities and reasons for learning English. | | | Provides information on students’ learning styles and preferences. | | Provides information on learners’ classroom behaviour. | | | Summarises students’ strengths | | | Identifies and gives specific examples of weaknesses in learners’ grammatical abilities. Plus error rationale. | | | Identifies and gives specific examples of weaknesses in learners’ phonological abilities. Plus error rationale. | | | Identifies and gives specific examples of weaknesses in the learners’ lexical use. Plus error rationale. | | | Selects an appropriate activity to develop learners’ grammatical weakness. | | | Selects an appropriate activity to develop learners’ phonological OR lexical weakness. | | States aim of each activity and provides rationale for choice based on learner profile. | | | Also the assignment †¦| | | Is complete, i. e. answers all sections and adheres to word limit and is written as outlined| | | Provides a referenced copy of the activities| | | Uses clear and coherent language and is essentially free of mistakes in spelling, punctuation and grammar. | | | ————————————————- Overall Comment:————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- —————————————à ¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€ | ————————————————- 1st Tutor’s signature:Date: ————————————————- 2nd Tutor’s signature:Date: ————————————————- Circle: This is my 1st submission. This is my 2nd submission. ASSIGNMENT 3: Skills Related Task Submit: __/__/____ Length: Between 800 and 1000 words (not including the authentic material for classroom use and activities) Aim: To develop your ability to look at authentic materials from a teaching perspective to enable you to prepare these thoroughly for language lessons.TASK: Choose an authentic text of between 200 and 700 words AND a) Give an opinion on text and discuss suitability for lower/higher level students. b) Identifiy barriers to reading OR listening in general and link to own students c) Provide suggestion for interest raising task d) Select appropriate vocabulary to pre-teach and suggest a pre-teach task e) Describe what each sub-skill means (from background reading) f) Design a skim task g) Design a scan task h) Design a follow-up task that includes SPEAKING or WRITING. i) Devise a freer productive (speaking or writing) activity as a follow-up for the reading or listening.ALSO†¦ Clarify the reasons for using the material and each of the activities. Tasks (and their respective keys) must be included as appendixes to the assignment Remember, the assignment is NOT a Lesson Plan, but rather an informed description (What will be done, How and Why) of your choices in terms of text, tasks and their sequences. It can be used as a basis for a full lesson plan, but this NEED not be included in the assignment ASSIGNMENT 3: Skills Related Task Submit: __/__/____ Length: Between 800 and 1000 words ————————————————- Name:Date: ———————————————— Please submit this cover sheet with your assignment | Pass(first draft)| Pass(second draft)| Fail| Assignment 3Skills assignment| | | | If necessary, please resubmit by:See reverse for resubmission details. | ————————————————- Assignment Criteria ————————————————- For this assignment, candidates can demonstrate their learning by: a. ————————————————- Correctly using te rminology that relates to language skills and sub-skills. b. ————————————————-Relating task design to language skills practice. c. ————————————————- Finding, selecting and referencing information from one or more sources d. ————————————————- Using written language that is clear, accurate and appropriate to task. ————————————————- Reference: CELTA Syllabus and Assessment Guidelines What are we looking for? | You| Tutor’s Comments| Gives an opinion on text and discusses suitability for lower/higher level students| | | Provides suggestion for interest raising task| | |Selects appropriate vocabulary to pre-teach and suggests a pre-teach task| | | Describes what each sub-skill means (from background reading)| | | Designs a skim task| | | Designs a scan task| | | Identifies barriers to reading OR listening in general and links to own students| | | States overall aim of speaking OR writing task clearly. | | | Also the assignment †¦| | | Is complete, i. e. answers all sections, & adheres to the word limit. | | | Provides a referenced copy of practice tasks if not designed independently. | | | Uses clear and coherent language, which is essentially free of mistakes in spelling, punctuation and grammar. | | Is written in continuous prose (where appropriate)| | | Includes references to background reading. | | | Overall Comments:| ————————————————- 1st Tutor’s signature:Date: ———†”————————————- 2nd Tutor’s signature:Date: ————————————————- Circle: This is my 1st submission. This is my 2nd submission. Written Assignment 4: Lessons from the Classroom Submit: __/__/____ Length: 800 words AIM This assignment assesses your ability to identify strengths & weaknesses in your own teaching and your development needs.It is meant to help you reflect on your own teaching and on what you have learnt from the observation of others. TASK Write a report using the following headings. Section 1 What strengths and weaknesses (name two of each) do you identify in your own teaching? For this section reflect on the feedback you have received from learners, your peers and tutors and give concrete examples from your own teaching. Section 2 Discuss what you have gained from observi ng experienced teachers (including video observations) and your peers and how this has influenced your own teaching. Section 3Identify three ELT areas of knowledge and skills which you need further development in and give reasons for your choice. Describe specifically how you could develop in these areas after the course. Written Assignment 4: Lessons from the Classroom Submit: __/__/____ Length: 800 words ————————————————- Name:Date: ————————————————- Please submit this cover sheet with your assignment | Pass(first draft)| Pass(second draft)| Fail| Assignment 4Lessons from the classroom| | | | If necessary, please resubmit by:See reverse side for resubmission details. ——————————— Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€- Assignment Criteria ————————————————- For this assignment, candidates can demonstrate their learning by: a. ————————————————- Noting their own teaching strengths and weaknesses in different situation in light of feedback from learners, teachers and teacher educators. b. ————————————————- Identifying which ELT areas of knowledge and skills they need further development in. c. ————————————————-Describing in a specific way how they might develop their ELT knowledge and skills beyond the course. d. —â€⠀Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€- Using written language that is clear, accurate and appropriate to the task. ————————————————- Reference: CELTA Syllabus and Assessment Guidelines What are we looking for? An assignment that:| Tutor’s Comments| Identifies 2 strengths in your teaching. | | Provides concrete examples of strengths from your own teaching. | | Identifies 2 weaknesses in your teaching. | | Provides concrete examples of weaknesses from your own teaching. | Reflects on what you have learnt from observing peers and experienced teachers. | | Highlights 3 areas for further development. | | Provides reasons for areas chosen. | | Provides concrete ways to address these development needs after the course. | | Also the assignment †¦| | Is complete, i. e. answers all sections. | | Keeps to the word limit. | | Uses language which is clear and coherent, and essentially free of mistakes in spelling, punctuation and grammar. | | Is presented clearly. Makes use of headings and sub-headings| | Overall Comments:|