Thursday, November 28, 2019
261 Booker T. Washington and The Atlanta Exposition Address Booker T. Washington 1856 1915 Quick Write Booker T. Washington 1856 1915 from Up from Slavery Chp XIV. The Atlanta Exposition AddressÃ AnalogyÃ Ã¢â¬âÃ a comparison between two things, typically for the purpose of explanation or clarification. MetaphorÃ Ã¢â¬âÃ is a figure of speech which makes an implicit, implied or hidden comparison between two things that are unrelated but share some common characteristics. Analogies: Annoying as nails on a chalkboard. or There are plenty of fish in the sea. Metaphors: Shall I compare thee to a SummerÃ¢â¬â¢s day? 0r The beautiful sunset. The sun doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t actually set, we rotate away from it on our globe and it only appears that way. Ã¢â¬Å"Cast Down Your BucketÃ¢â¬ : Dr. WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s belief that people should make the most of any situation they find themselves in. He felt that economic opportunity for African Americans was in the south instead of moving to the north. His idea was that the two races should look to one another for economic advancement for the country. Jim Crow Laws: Laws passed mainly by local legislatures that relegated African Americans to second class citizenship. These were the original laws that started segregation when Ã¢â¬Å"Whites OnlyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Coloreds OnlyÃ¢â¬ started appearing as a result of Jim Crow legislation. Disenfranchisement: To deprive a right, especially the right to vote. Black Codes: Laws passed right after the Civil War ended that discriminated against African Africans, and made the status of African Americans closer to slaves than free people. The Black Codes bound African Americans to contracts that gave them no legal rights and in some cases forbid them to leave the plantation they worked on. The Black Codes said no southern state would set up schools for African Americans.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
The First Review of Van Gogh's Paintings The very first art critic to review Van Goghs paintings was Albert Aurier (1865-1892), and it happened during Van Goghs Lifetime. Aurier was a painter himself, as well as an art critic. Aurier was passionate about Symbolism, then an emerging art movement. His review, Les IsolÃ ©s: Vincent van Gogh, was published in January 1890, on pages 24-29 of the magazine Mercure de France. This was a magazine read at the time by everyone with an interest in modern art.1 In it, Aurier aligned Van Goghs art with the nascent Symbolist movement and highlight[ed] the originality and intensity of his artistic vision.2 In his review Aurier described Van Gogh as the only painter he knew who perceives the coloration of things with such intensity, with such a metallic, gem-like quality, his work as intense and feverish, his brushstrokes as fiery, very powerful, his palette as dazzling, and said his technique matched his artistic temperament: vigorous and intense. (Full review, in French.) Aurier also published a shortened version under the title Vincent van Gogh in LÃ¢â¬â¢Art Moderne on 19 January 1890.4. Vincent van Gogh wrote a letter3 to Aurier in February 1890 to thank him for the review. Thank you very much for your article in the Mercure de France, which greatly surprised me. I like it very much as a work of art in itself, I feel that you create colors with your words; anyway, I rediscover my canvases in your article, but better than they really are - richer, more significant. Van Gogh then goes on to deprecate himself: However, I feel ill at ease when I reflect that what you say should be applied to others rather than to me and right at the end he gives instructions about how Aurier would do well to varnish the study hed sent him. Source:1. History of the Publication of Van Gogh Letters, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam2. Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: Vincent van Gogh, Metropolitan Museum of Art3. Letter to Albert Aurier by Vincent van Gogh, written either 9 or 10 February 1890. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam4. Notes to Letter 845 from Jo van Gogh-Bonger to Vincent van Gogh, 29 January 1890. Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Organizational Communication Concepts and Skills - Assignment Example Therefore, if the organization tends to neglect socializing the employees, then in such cases the employees must themselves socialize. There are two distinct communication network taking place in organizational environment. They are formal as well as informal network. The formal network is making communication following the hierarchical structure of the organization. On the other hand, the informal network comprises communication following the grapevine (Cairo University, 2012). It is a well known fact that successful communication in an organization enhances the efficiency, minimizes the turnover of the employees and also helps in the development of the office atmosphere. The chief objective of this discussion is to propose a new communication structure for an organization. The five different concepts that the discussion shall evaluate are active listening, organizational culture, and conflict resolution, leadership strategies as well as formal and informal communication. Analysis o f the Concepts Important For Successful Communication within an Organization Active Listening It is a well known fact that effective listening is significant for improving communication. However, the managers are not always found to be listening since active listening is not considered to be a natural procedure. Mental as well as physical efforts are needed on part of the listener. Intra-organizational listening can be considered as an influential competitive tool (Helms & Haynes, 1992). In the context of the business world, listening is considered to be a significant element of effectual communication in an organization. While communicating with the members of the organization, listening will assist in avoiding any kind of confusions, comprehending the work lucidly and thus creating a positive connection with whom the communication is initiated. The communication experts have agreed to the fact that active listening as a major factor which comprises behaviors such as empathetic bod y language, posing useful questions, validating employee expression via considerate conversation turn-taking along with rephrasing for ensuring mutual understanding. Active listening generally comprises the focus of the consultants upon the clients with an indication that they are listening closely to the issue presented and the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretation of this aspect (The University of Maine, 2012). For a communication to be effective and successful, it is vital for the listeners to motivate themselves to listen. They are supposed to decide precisely why they are listening. Active listening offers numerous advantages to the organization. It leads to save in time by means of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s defenses and gain significant information without repeating the same conversation always. It permits the organization to evaluate a situation accurately (Kuboto, Mishima, & Nagata, 2004). However, one of the facts regarding active listening is that it is not an easy skill to be attained. It might as well require alterations in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own basic attitudes. Active listening carries an element of personal risk. Creating an attitude of sincere interest in the speaker is not an easy task. It can hence be created by being willing to risk viewing the world from the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view (Rogers & Farson, 2010). Organizational Culture Organizational culture is considered to be a significant component in the context of organizational communication. Culture is generally comprehended as how people make sense of
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Describe all the issues about which Sister Aloysius could have doubts , going from the least important to the most important. ( - Essay Example It is very shocking that Sister Aloysius could have the potential of turning into a doubting Thomas given the dogmatic image of one who never had any doubt in her life (Shanley 22). In an effort to make this issue sink even further, it is revealed that Sister Aloysius told a lie. This is against the fact that it is a very strong Catholic dogma that no any lie of any sort ought to be encouraged leave alone being told (Waldmeir 34). This very rigid law is held even in circumstances where the lie could be the solitary tool in defeating the devil. Despite being a very sincere and devoted servant of God, Sister Aloysius finds herself in a very compromising situation. She is unwillingly introduced to the Machiavellian relativism. Sister Aloysius goes further to encapsulate humanityÃ¢â¬â¢s doubt in its last century. It is at this very point that Sister Aloysius openly abandons absolutism (Books Llc 43). The very step that Sister Aloysius takes in abandoning absolutism violates greatly the vow that she had personally taken in an effort to affirm her obedience to the church which was aimed at catching the pedophile (Waldmeir 79). As the play progresses, it comes to the realization that Sister Aloysius is very important when the hierarchy fails to work. At this point in time, Sister Aloysius transforms into the prosecutor, the jury and even the judge. This step marks the beginning of Sister Aloysius to fall in the slippery tracks already built by the principle of moral relativism. This rings a question to the mind of the reader as to whether it is really possible for anyone to offer any defense or support to moral absolutes if at all Sister Aloysius cannot do it. It therefore possesses yet another doubt on how truly the aspect of evil could be effectively stopped (Shengold 51). A heavy doubt lingers on whether there can be any staged war against the issue of evil if at all the absolutes being in place. Faith has now escaped and the only thing that is present is doubt w hich is being portrayed as having captured every individual. As the play progresses, it is notable that boundaries are being set for the rapid spread of doubt. This can be seen in the case that involves Aloysius the pedophile. It is very clear that Sister Aloysius is borrowing heavily from intuition in handling these particular cases (Bryer 61). The evidence that is presented by Aloysius proves to be more flimsy as compared to the evidence that comes from WMDs who are located in Iraq. In this particular case, Sister Aloysius is vey much in doubt about the case since the audience is further informed that if at all she could have been successful in accessing the right results then only luck could be the propelling force (Books Llc 82). The doubt that Sister Aloysius has is in regard to the spiritual issue. This is brought out clearly in the book. It is in regard to this that Sister Aloysius argues that if at all by any chance the society is filled with evil doers as he presumes, then she could put in contribution to the evil activities and move away further from God. Despite the fact that history was filled with evil doers who were acting from fierce conviction such as suicide bombers, witch hunters, Mullahs and the Inquisitors these people act form the conviction that they are protecting children (Shanley 19). As a matter of fact, it is in reference to these very
Monday, November 18, 2019
American Ideology - Essay Example Politics, like diplomacy, is the art of the postponement of hostilities, in the way people try to resolve their political, economic, and ideological differences. However, it is a fact that people will still try to bicker and debate on their differences despite the best efforts, because some people have a hard set of ideas or ideologies which cannot be swayed. This is in effect the essence of democracy, in which various ideas are welcomed and tolerated. Ideology can range from the extreme left (very liberal) to the middle to the extreme right (conservative) and this brief essay is a position paper as it examines both these two ideologies. Discussion Ideas are rarely truly original or innovative, most of these ideas are either influenced by earlier ideas or mere improvements or adaptations of much earlier ideas in human history. In this regard, history works in only a one-way street, which means earlier ideas can influence later ideas, as people go through their lives and human history unfolds in a deterministic way. This philosophy postulates that every human idea, action, and decision is a consequence from prior events or antecedent state of affairs. Along this line, history and ideology works in the same way; nothing exists in a vacuum and both Hitler and Einstein were also influenced. Question No. 1 Ã¢â¬â socialism is an economic, political, and social principle which states that the general public (the common masses) should own and control public properties or the so-called commons (the natural resources open to everybody for exploitation and their use); it further advocates public ownership of the means of production in society, such that there will be no private ownership of these same means of production for goods and services. Socialism is an adverse reaction to excesses of a free-market capitalism which arose out of the Industrial Revolution in England back in the eighteenth century; it (the Industrial Revolution) changed the wealth paradigm from own ership of vast tracts of land to ownership of the means of production, namely the new factories and assembly lines. This is a new economic system but the new class of capitalists exploited the masses of laborers by hiring them at subsistence wages, working in unsafe or unsanitary conditions, no minimum working hours and no minimum or living wage, the widespread use of child labor, and the repression of progressive social ideas such as labor unions or in not letting the workers' voice be represented or heard. Socialism therefore is in opposition to the main and cherished ideals of capitalism that are centered on egoism and self-preservation through the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"invisible handÃ¢â¬ of Adam Smith in which free markets are supposed to be self-regulating and all are to be supposedly benefited by the profit motive. But modern economics show this does not really always work out as envisioned because capitalism implies fierce competition in free markets and this leads to undue wea lth accumulation by a few individuals (the capitalists or new elites of society). Modern economics always struggle with issues of scarcity and socialism is the best way to solve it. Albert Einstein believed that humans are capable of going beyond VeblenÃ¢â¬â¢s so-called Ã¢â¬Å"predatory phaseÃ¢â¬ in the collective human experience of social development, which is reason for socialism to be adopted as the best system for human society. Reason is the key to achieving the social-ethical
Friday, November 15, 2019
Design Of Perfomance Linked Reward System Business Essay Performance-related reward system involves rewarding employees according to their performance, or results achieved or contribution to organisations performance as individuals or as a part of a group. It involves a shift of focus from remuneration models based on the worth of jobs and employee skills to their performance. Designing a performance-linked reward system is conditioned by a variety of factors such as the nature of business, type of technology, the attitude of unions and human resource management strategies of the organisation. Therefore, no particular model can be recommended; it has to be custom-tailored. Performance-linked reward systems reduce labour cost, result in increases in real wages and motivate performance. They provide a method of absorbing cost escalation on account of pay increases and thus help in sustaining competitiveness of the organisation. It has been increasingly realised that performance-related pay, if used in isolation, may have little impact on motivation for performance. Appropriate conditions in the organisation have to be created for performance-linked reward systems to be motivationally effective. These conditions, for instance, will involve proper information, consultation, communication mechanisms, training and development of employees, developing proactive attitude and performance-oriented culture, providing non- monetary incentives and evolving an efficient performance management system and so on. Reward system cannot be seen in isolation from compensation management. Compensation management is getting increasingly integrated with business and human resource management strategy. Reward system should, therefore, be considered as an aid to better performance in a performance management system which may be integrated with the overall business plan and strategy. FORMS AND CHOICE OF PERFORMANCE LINKED REWARD SYSTEM There are several types of performance-linked reward schemes. Generally, these are designed to-share with or distribute to employees as individuals, groups or a collectivity productivity gains, profit improvement or financial results of enterprise performance. Such schemes fall into the following broad categories: Schemes based on individual or small group performance including piece rates, traditional merit pay, and sales commission. Incentive schemes which may relate pay to profits on the basis of a pre- determined formula. Bonus schemes based on contribution to productivity and profitability according to a pre-determined formula with gains sometimes distributed among the individual employees on the basis of merit rating. Productivity Bargaining. Employee Stock Options Plan (ESOP). Competency-based pay. 1. Merit Incentive Pay A common method which has long been in existence is pay increase or bonus payment on the basis of performance rating. The merit incentive pay scheme provides another method of recognising and rewarding differential performance. This method could particularly be suitable for office staff. The scheme essentially involves the following steps: a) The determination of result-oriented merit rating procedures, b) The identification of job factors and their relative importance, c) The formulation of a scale of reward, and d) The communication of the basis of monetary reward. Illustratively, job factors of salesman can be identified as (a) sales promotion, (b) realisation of outstandings, and (c) good-will calls, (d) after-sales service and, (e) investigation of complaints. These tasks will differ in their degree of importance. This difference can be recognised by imputing numerical values to different job factors. Hypothetically, let us assign weight values of 5, 3 and 2 respectively to the above tasks. In practice, weight values can be ascertained through job analysis. The actual merit rating score will give the percentage of basic wage or basic wage plus D.A. as incentive bonus. Given a result-oriented merit rating procedure and its objective operation in an organization, it should not be difficult to install a merit incentive pay system. This is not to minimise the difficulties that are usually encountered in operating a -merit rating system. The effectiveness of the performance appraisal system will depend on the soundness of the performance appraisal system. Sometimes merit increments and merit awards are also given in recognition of superior performance on the part of individuals. These are poor substitutes for a system of merit incentive pay because of several shortcomings. Under a system of merit increments, there is no prompt relationship between reward and effort. The quantum of reward at a point of time will be considered inadequate. Additional cost in the form of enhanced allowances is built for the company on permanent basis. Employees continue to benefit from their best performance even if it remains below standard in the future. Employees getting merit awards cannot visualise a proportionate relationship between their performance and reward. The basis of determining the quantum can not be explained to employees who are not given such awards. This may evoke jealously and friction and may thus jeopardise cooperation and goodwill. Incentive Payments Lumpsum payments such as sales commission is another traditional method. Generally, the performance and the payment of lumpsum are linked by a formula. Sales commission, however, does not generally consider other parameters of performance such as realisation of outstandings and selling high profit margin products. Another traditional method of rewarding performance is piece rates. There are several weaknesses in this system. It is not easy to agree with workers on the standard output required. Frequent changes may be needed in the standard output due to technology changes and this may lead to conflict between unions and management. Also factors other than individual performance such as change in work method affect output. Conflicts may also arise between different work groups when one group is dependent on another. There is a potential for conflict when norms have to be revised because of such factors as technology changes. Also, modernisation of technology and automation has rendered piece rates somewhat obsolete. 2. Incentive Schemes Output-based incentive scheme are appropriate where tasks are repetitive and measurable. These involve the following steps: Selecting the objectives Determining the parameters of performance in accordance with the objectives Determining the norms or base values or benchmark values for each parameter Determining performance-reward relationship Fixing the relative importance of the selected parameters, that is, their weightages Designing information and procedure formats Determining the maximum payable incentive amount (incentive opportunity) and , payment period Formulating a communication and review scheme These are, however, not suitable for high technology and service activities, which require information sharing, problem solving and team work. Productivity gain or profit sharing or employee stock options plan (ESOP) may be suitable types for such activities. 3. Group Incentive and Productivity Gain Sharing Under the productivity gain sharing schemes, productivity gains are shared in accordance to an agreed pre-determined formula. Profit sharing gives a share of profit. Sometimes, the quantum of bonus is determined on the basis of profit as well as productivity improvements according to a pre-determined benchmark value for each of them. 4. Productivity Bargaining Productivity bargaining can provide yet another method of improving productivity and linking wage increases- to such improvements. Productivity bargaining, however, does not mean an incentive scheme or wage increases in return for assurances and promises from unions for achieving production targets. This method implies (a) a detailed analysis of the firms operations, (b) the identification of cost reduction possibilities, (c) estimation of savings in cost, and (d) the development of a system o indexing wage increases with cost reductions actually realised over time. The climate for productivity bargaining has never been more favourable than now. It is for managements to take initiative and build this approach in their collective bargaining relationship with Unions. 5. Long-Term Incentive (ESOP) Long-term incentive in the form of employee stock options schemes are operated both to improve long-term incentive and to reduce fixed cost. ESOP envisages employee participation in and ownership of a companys equity. This plan is intended to provide an incentive to the employees to improve the all- round performance and growth of the company and share its prosperity. The plan usually involves allotment of equity shares according to a laid down procedure and subject to governmental regulations, laws and rules. The employees benefit in the form of enhanced market value of his shares and capital gains, which in turn depend on companys and employee performance. Several software and high-tech organisations such as Infosys have conceived and designed such plans. 6. Competency-based Pay The competency is a critical determinant of performance. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in offering monetary incentive for acquiring competencies required for higher performance on the present job or for the next job. Such competency may for instance include values, attitude and behavioural characteristics which influence performance. In designing a performance linked reward scheme, choice of an appropriate scheme should be considered as critical. The choice will be determined by a variety of factors such as the nature of the organisation, the nature of technology, the nature of profits, the nature of markets, the human resource strategy and business objectives. STEPS IN DESIGNING There is a variety of forms of performance-linked schemes. These must be closely adapted to the particular conditions of individual enterprises and the concerned groups of companies. In designing a custom-tailored performance-linked reward scheme, the following steps are important: 1. Custom-Tailored There is little scope for relying on model or standardized schemes. Attempts to impose specific performance-linked reward systems through central regulations generally appear to fail. Frequently the appropriateness of what is being required may appear questionable from the perspective of individual enterprises. Therefore, care must be taken in adapting such schemes to the particularities of individual enterprises. 2. Objectives The objectives of the schemes need to be carefully formulated. Such objectives are needed to guide the selection of performance measures, the specification of bonus calculation formulae and the reaching of common understanding on the size of bonuses that may be expected through the schemes. The potential for performance improvement may vary greatly from one enterprise to another, as well as with the passage of time. Both the short and long run objectives for the scheme should be identified. 3. Selection of Performance Measures The selection of performance measures must be consistent with the scheme objectives; these must encourage those types of behaviour considered important for organizational performance such as increasing output, reducing labour and other costs, improving quality or timeliness of delivery, encouraging co-operation amongst work groups, enhancing adaptability and innovations, etc. In addition, they must not be pursued at the expense of other performance parameters. At the same time, the measures of performance selected should, to a large extent, be under employee control, and not influenced by external influences. Employees will be demotivated if their best efforts are offset by factors they cannot control. The unit, the performance of which is measured, should be small enough to ensure that workers can see some relation between their efforts and rewards. To ensure motivational effectiveness, the measures of performance should also be easily understood by the workers concerned, subject to ready verification if suspicions arise, and be calculable at frequent intervals. 4. Basis Depending on circumstances, performance awards may be determined on the basis of improvements over the previous year, improvements over a base period performance, or the maintenance of a high level of performance. Bonuses which become exceptionally large should be integrated into basic wages in order to avoid distortions in pay structures. Where necessary, it may be advisable to resort to procedures for stabilising bonuses of lengthening the period over which performance is calculated. 5. External Influences To the extent possible, the initial agreement establishing the scheme should specify how target performance levels are to be dealt with when their achievement is affected by external influences such as changes in. production methods, product mix and prices of inputs and outputs. 6. Distribution The rule for the distribution of bonuses amongst workers should be simple and widely supported. It may be based on wage rates or average earnings. Also, to discourage excessive absenteeism, bonus is sometimes varied with the number of hours or days worked. However, distributions in accordance with assessments of individual worker performance by supervisors may be problematic, especially if such assessments lead to significant variation in pay. 7. Equity There should be equal opportunities to earn bonuses, even though the performance measures may vary. In addition, performance targets should be set after a careful scrutiny of the historical behaviour of the measures selected. The quantum of bonus should be significant enough to evoke extra efforts. At the same time performance awards should not be so large as to put at risk a significant part of employee earnings for reasons beyond their control. 8. Safeguards Such schemes should not be substituted for wage increases that otherwise would have been granted or replace fixed wages with variable wages. Performance pay should supplement rather than replace existing wage bargaining arrangements and should not question the need to maintain basic wages at adequate levels. Perhaps of even greater importance in some contexts may be the need to give assurances to existing employees that productivity improvements would not place jobs in jeopardy. 9. Involvement and Communication Such schemes must be perceived as acting in the interest of employees as well as employers. Accordingly such schemes must be implemented in ways that convince employees that they will receive a fair share of the benefits derived from their extra efforts and their jobs will not be threatened. Schemes based on collective performance work more effectively when the scheme objectives and operation are explained in detail to all the employees concerned. The success of schemes depends to a large extent on the amount of effort given by management to consultation at various stages in the planning and design of the scheme, in the process of implementation and monitoring of results. In addition, the schemes have a better chance of success if employees are provided with full opportunities to present their ideas for bringing about improvement. Performance- linked schemes function most effectively when they are accompanied by a formal participative system that facilitates: (a) the transformation of agreed practical suggestions into actual changes in operating methods and procedures; (b) two-way communications at all levels on operating difficulties and general business trends. 10. Union Participation in the Design Performance reward schemes may work most effectively when worker representatives are given full opportunity to participate in their design and administration. Such involvement may facilitate comprehension and acceptance of scheme objectives. Moreover, workers may only fully trust the scheme if it has been elaborated in consultation and agreement with worker representatives and they are subsequently given opportunities to verify that awards is being calculated fairly. Also, the commonality of interests of workers and employers in improved productivity, performance, earnings and equity is likely to be much more apparent where pay systems are developed and elaborated in accordance with rules established through collective bargaining. 11. Review There should be a clear provision for modifications owing to changes in production methods or in prices or inputs or outputs. The effectiveness of all pay systems decays with time and the duration of schemes based on collective measures of performance are particularly short. Accordingly it should be foreseen that the basic parameters of such schemes would undergo regular periodic revisions. Indeed it should be expected from the outset that the collective performance measures and targets would undergo continuing change every few years in the light of the experience. ISSUES AND TRENDS There are many issues and trends occur in linking performance with reward system which are as follows:- 1. Level of Education The level of education of the employees, among other factors, will determine what type of scheme is likely to be easily understood by them and will motivate them. The nature of the business and the operations will also influence. Organisations in low cost manufacturing or which promote innovation, skills and higher performance or which are in service industries may need to consider different forms of performance pay. Their business and human resource management strategy will differ; the form and content as well as objectives of performance pay should be consistent with them. 2. Trade Union The chance of success of performance-linked pay will depend on the tradition of collective bargaining and attitudes of unions. While the negative attitudes hinder its introduction, the positive attitude considerably facilitates it 3. Organisational Culture Performance pay gives better results in organisations characterised by employee involvement and team spirit. A pro-active culture in the organisation is found to be valuable to performance and productivity. 4. Package of Monetary and Non-Monetary Incentives Performance pay is at best an element in the reward management and motivational system. Besides performance pay, it is essential to pay attention simultaneously to such aspects as re-organisation of work process, training, employee involvement and participative decision-making, opportunities to contribute ideas and knowledge, non- monetary recognition, career development and goal setting. 5. Rewarding Good Performance Rewarding good performance may include, among others, such mechanisms as cash awards, appreciation letter and certificates, training in reputed institutions, foreign travel, job enlargement and enriched roles, publicity in newsletters and membership of professional societies, etc. For higher effectiveness of performance-linked pays system, such reward mechanisms should also be used. 6. Performance Pay and Performance Management It is increasingly realised that performance is affected by a variety of factors. These factors, for instance, will include knowledge and skills which are developed through training, work attitudes and intrinsic rewards. These and other factors which affect performance are considered in the wider context of performance management and human resource management with performance pay constituting an element of it. 7. Caveats It is being increasingly realised that The performance pay systems should be designed to promote the kind of performance an organisation needs. It should, therefore, be integrated with human resource management strategy for better performance and growth of the organisation. The performance pay should underpin the organisations main values such as team work, creativity, flexibility and quality. The system should provide an impetus to and support the behaviour expected of the employees. Therefore, it must communicate to employees the type of behaviour to be rewarded and the way in which it will be rewarded. The reward system should be strengthened through re-organisation of work process and enlarged job responsibilities, training, consultation, communication and participatory system. Employees should also be consulted in the formulation of the plan. The criteria for determining performance should be objective, measurable, easily understood and related to what employees can control. The quantum of performance pay should be significant enough to be motivationally effective and its distribution should be equitable. The payment of performance pay should follow the performance as soon as possible and as frequently as possible. The performance level should be achievable; otherwise it will have a demoralising effect. The quantum of pay should be sufficiently flexible to absorb downturn and adequately reward when performance is good; it should also safeguard the minimum remuneration for the value of the job. QUESTIONS Q1. Explain what is performance-linked reward system? Q2. What are the various ways in which performance can be linked to reward system? Q3. In designing a performance-linked reward system, what considerations will you take into account? Q4.List out the various steps involved in designing a performance-linked reward system. Give an example. Q5. Examine the current issues and trends in linking performance with reward system.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
The Time Is Now To Remove Advanced Practice Registered Nurse Scope of Practice Barriers As Americans enter into the dawn of the Affordable Care Act of 2014; and the open enrollment period has begun to allow access to the Health Insurance Marketplace as part of the U.S. healthcare reform 32 million Americans are expected to become newly insured. It is now the time that Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRNs) scope of practice barriers is abolished to allow APRNs the right to practice within the full extent of their education and training. APRNs include nurse practitioners; certified nurse midwives, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and clinical nurse specialists (Luterek, 2013). The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has encouraged the removal of the APRN scope of practice barriers, to legally permit the unrestricted ability to practice within the full degree of their education and training. The IOM noted that as millions of Americans are predicted to access healthcare services under the federal Affordable Care Act, APRNs should be in the forefront to provide that car e (ANA, 2011). Not surprisingly, Nurse Practitioners (NPs) have been providing exceptional health care since 1965 (NPWH). Today, over 125 thousand NPs practice nationwide (NPWH), and see greater than 600 million patient visits each year (ANA, 2011, p. 1). They are legally authorized to practice in all 50 states. NPs are regulated through their state's nurse practice act. They undergo extensive training and national board certification within a population specialty such as family, adult, gerontology, pediatrics, neonatal, acute care, women's health or psychiatric health demonstrating their expert knowledge and continued competence (NPWH). The national shortage of p... ...ope of Practice Barriers for Illinois Advanced Practice Nurses. Health and Medicine Policy Research Group. Chicago: Health and Medicine Policy Research Group. Retrieved February 8, 2014, from http://hmprg.org/assets/root/PDFs/2013/01/Nurse-Practice-Act-Position-Paper-Final.pdf NPWH. (n.d.). NP Facts. Retrieved February 10, 2014, from Nurse Practitioners in Women's Health Caring for Women: http://www.npwh.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3339 RWJF. (2013). Putting the Skills, Knowledge, and Experience of APRNs to Full Use Latest Charting Nursing's Future brief focuses on barriers to practice and how some institutions are overcoming them. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Retrieved February 10, 2014, from http://www.rwjf.org/en/about-rwjf/newsroom/newsroom-content/2013/07/putting-the-skills--knowledge--and-experience-of-aprns-to-full-u.html